The human body, its organs, and the organ system is a complex creation of nature. Each organ has its own set of function and significance. However, due to many complications, it might become important to surgically remove either a part or the entire organ. The uterus is the internal organ that plays a crucial role in pregnancy and menstrual cycle of women. Surgical removal of the uterus is called hysterectomy. Expert gynecologist and obstetrician recommend a hysterectomy for various reasons. Let’s understand what conditions calls out for the need of a hysterectomy.
1. Heavy Menstrual Bleeding
Some women experience severe bleeding during the monthly cycles up to an extent that it starts affecting their daily life. In such cases, hysterectomy offers a permanent solution as post surgery, the menstrual cycle ceases to continue. However, often it is availed only by the women who no longer wish to have children.
2. Uterine Or Cervix Cancer
Any cancer is a deadly medical condition that requires effective treatment on time. For any cancer, surgical removal of the site of malignancy is the best treatment and the same holds true for the gynecological cancers as well.
The uterus lining tissues sometime might grow outside the uterus and spread into nearby organs such as a fallopian tube or other pelvic or abdominal organs. A total hysterectomy is considered when other medical approaches fail to get any effective results.
Uterine tumors, even if benign in nature, cause many complications. Pain, bleeding, and anemia is some of them. They can be treated by a non-surgical approach in case they are quite small in size. However, it might require a hysterectomy to address larger fibroids.
5. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
It is a bacterial infection affecting the female reproductive system which can be cured easily with over-the-counter drugs if detected at its earliest stages. However, failing to do so, can have drastic consequences as it spreads to the uterus and fallopian tubes and causes a long term, severe pain. Hysterectomy remains a feasible and permanent solution for the same.
A partial hysterectomy is a procedure in which only the uterus is removed while the cervix is left intact. In a total hysterectomy, the cervix is also removed (many a time, either or both ovaries and fallopian tubes are also removed) surgically. At ILS Hospitals, we offer laparoscopic hysterectomy for patients dealing with such severe medical conditions.
‘Mrs. Majumdar, 48, suddenly felt a sharp pain in her lower abdomen and after she was rushed to the hospital, the doctor performed an emergency surgery as it was a case of appendix burst.’ Thousands of surgical procedures are being performed each day, let it be elective or emergency, all across the globe. But did you ever wonder how old is this entire concept of surgery? Who came up with the idea of surgery? Let’s try to explore how the surgery evolved.
Despite having extremely effective medication, not every illness can be treated with it and we require surgery for the same. Surgery is a special branch of medicine that uses invasive approach (both manual and instrumental) to cure or manage illnesses.
Multiple evidence has been found from many regions across the world that surgical procedures had been carried out since neolithic and pre-catholic ages. However, as per many theories, that appears to be due to some religious or ritual purposes, instead of health reasons.
In ancient India and Greek, several surgical procedures were carried out for a range of health illnesses. In fact, as per evidence, Sushruta, (father of surgery, as said by many theories) performed and taught his disciples a wide range of surgical procedures. ‘Sushruta Samhita’ explains a great deal about the numerous illness along with detailed procedure of its treatment. These include hernia surgery, cesarean delivery, treating fractures and also procedures like cataract surgery and prosthetic surgery, which is considered as modern medical marvels.
Read More – History And Evolution Of Stethoscope
During middle ages and Renaissance, there were many ‘barber-surgeons’ offering surgical procedure (however, they are not medical professionals with a university degree). The surgical procedures were gaining popularity among people, and operations theaters were built to carry out the procedures.
Read More – Why an Operation Theatre Is Called So
However, the limitations of anesthesia and proper sterilization made people tremble with fear, even with the thought of having an operation. Patients were forced to witness their own operation and thereby, speed was considered as a more crucial factor than the output of the surgery. In fact procedures like amputation were carried out in less than 2-3 minutes, to reduce the pain and horror of the patients.
The modern surgery came into existence with enormous efforts and during this time, the correct anatomy of the human body was explored and understood, by dissecting the human cadavers. Also, sterility of the wound and surgical equipment were given prime importance along with proper anesthesia administration.
Read More – History Of Anesthesia
Currently, we are witnessing, probably the best phase of surgery. The introduction of laparoscopic surgery (which uses minute incisions to carry out several surgeries) is a medical marvel with no match. In developed nations, the scope of robotics surgery is being explored as well, which might be the next best thing in the near future. However, we at ILS Hospitals, pay our tribute to each and every physician, doctors, and staffs who contributed towards shaping the realm of ‘surgery’ as we see today.
Blood transfusion is a process of supplying blood of a matching group to an individual in need of it. Even though advanced procedures such as laparoscopic surgery rarely needs a blood transfusion, it is needed for medical emergencies, life support systems, several specific diseases, such as thalassemia, or even a major pre-scheduled invasive surgery.
Whether or not you have been a part of blood transfusions, you are more likely to be accustomed to only one type of blood donation. However, did you know that there are 4 types of blood donations, as per the element of the blood? Let’s have a quick look at each of them
1. Whole blood donation
The most common procedure, in which about a pint of whole blood is extracted out of the body. It may or may not be further segregated into platelets, plasma, and red cells, depending upon the need of the recipient. The procedure takes about half an hour or even less, while the patients can donate the same every 2 months.
2. Platelet Apheresis
It requires a special apheresis machine that collects blood and separates all its elements with centrifugal effect. The platelets component is kept for transfusion while the remaining elements return back to the body’s blood circulation. The process takes about 2 hours.
This type of blood is needed by patients battling cancers, undergoing organ transplant therapy and surgeries/medical emergencies that may involve massive bleeding. Moreover, while a single platelet donation can be used for multiple blood transfusion, it takes about 5-6 whole blood donations to make up for a single platelet transfusion. It can be donated every seven days, up to 24 times a year.
3. Plasma Apheresis
This type of blood donation goes simultaneously with the previous one. In this type, only the plasma is kept for the blood transfusion, while the rest is returned back to the body. The process takes about an hour and a half. It can be done after every two weeks.
4. Power Red
This one is yet another donation type involving the apheresis machine, which collects only the red cells while it returns the plasma and the platelets. Often the rare blood types have short supply as the donor need to meet few special guidelines for donating this type. It includes having higher levels of haemoglobin and specific body height and weight.
A single donation usually takes about an hour and collects two units of red cells. The donor can contribute every 120 days.
Each blood donation types has its own features. On this World Blood Donor Day, 14th June we honour every blood donor and feel our duty to pay tribute to one particular donor named James Harrison of Australia. This blood plasma donor rightfully earned the title of ‘man with the golden arm’ as he has donated blood plasma 1173 times throughout his entire life. After receiving 13 liters of blood for a surgery at the age of 14, he committed to donate blood in the future. Having a rather strong antigen against the group Rh antigen, he was able to donate blood plasma, which as per estimation, saved about 2.4 million unborn babies.
While saluting such a determined spirit, we, on behalf of ILS Hospitals, urge every healthy, capable individual to donate blood, at least once in their lifetime.
The laparoscopic surgery is an advanced surgical technique that overcomes several negative aspects of traditional open surgery. It is also known as MIS (minimally invasive surgery), Band-Aid surgery or Keyhole surgery. It is executed by making few minor incision, instead of making a large slit across the site.
Let’s have a look at few of its aspect and importance in the field of medical science.
The Procedure of Surgery
Though laparoscopic surgery can be executed for several domains, the most common ones are done in the abdominal region. After the anesthesia is administrated, the surgery begins by making a single incision first, through this a cannula in inserted and carbon dioxide is used to inflate the stomach. Though the abdomen does have some of it already, but often extra is pumped in order to make the surgery more convenient.
After the administration of carbon dioxide, the outer layer of the stomach inflates, creating enough working space for carrying out the surgery. Few more incisions are made through which other instruments, camera and light source etc. are inserted. The real-time feed and movements are tracked and displayed on the monitor in the Operation Theater.
The displayed images are of extremely high resolution and can easily be zoomed in and out and moved around for better visual and for carrying out the procedure. The part of the instrument extended outside the body can be moved accordingly to make the desired movement inside. These include making dissecting, stitching, perforating, stapling, collecting and extracting portions of dissected diseased organs.
After the completion of the procedure, nearby organs re-checked for any signs of possible damage or infection. Upon assurance, the instruments are retracted back and the gas is extracted back in order to retain the abdomen, its original shape.
Scope of Laparoscopy
Laparoscopy is a diagnostic as well as a surgical technique which can be used to assist surgeries in the following domains, such as
- Gallbladder surgery
- Small and large intestine surgery
- Orthopedics Surgery
- Hernia repair surgery
- Liver and pancreas surgery
- Appendix surgery
- Infertility treatment
- Reproductive organ surgery like Hysterectomy
As a diagnostic tool, it is helpful to check several medical aspects, without perforating the organ or making things worse. It is used for the following purpose
- To evaluate the effectiveness of any treatment or medication
- To evaluate the stage of any disease
- To check a polyp or tumor
- To release fluid or gas trapped in the abdominal cavity
- To collect tissue samples for biopsy
In a nutshell, it is the top-notch surgical approach that is replacing the traditional surgery these days.
Endoscopy is one of the most employed diagnostic probes that are used in the domain of medical science in the leading hospitals of India, which also includes Kolkata. The term endoscopy literally means to ‘look inside’ and for medical purpose, it rightfully enable the doctor to look inside the body and figure out the probable cause of any discomfort or as a treatment approach for some medical conditions. The technique is very similar to a laparoscopic surgery and is done by inserting a particular kind of instrument into the cavity and hollowed organs.
There are multiple types of the same depending upon the site on the body. Also, the patient may or may not be given a dose of anesthesia, depending upon the procedure. Endoscopy in broader term refers to the procedure, in usage, it is synonymously used for the procedures carried out in the upper gastrointestinal tract, primarily inserted through the nose or mouth.
An endoscopy is a highly efficient procedure to determine the underlying cause of any illness or discomfort without opening it up by making a large incision. Several times, it is also used to extract a few tissues for the site for the purpose of biopsy and other screenings. Though it is a bit rare and executed only when a possible case of cancer or malignancy is suspected. It also proves to be an extremely beneficial tool to determine the effect of any medication and new treatment procedure.
As already mentioned, for upper gastroenterology, the endoscopic probe is mostly inserted through the mouth, nose or rarely through a small cut made on the epidermal layer of the skin. It is stitched back after the completion of the procedure. The endoscopic procedure is almost similar to that of a laparoscopic surgery.
To aid the visuals, the endoscope probe also comprises of a cold light source and camera, which projects the real time image of the internal organ. The internal images can either be decoded and evaluated by the pathologist directly or can be screened and saved, for the respective doctor to analyze it later.
The endoscopy is an extremely popular diagnostic tool in the medical world. It is usually sufficient for determining the underlying cause. After it reveals the primary results, it might lead to either oral medication, drug therapy or surgical approach, depending upon the individual case and type of illness.