Chest Pain in General Practice: A Systematic Review of Prediction Rules

If ignored, chest pain can lead to life-threatening conditions. Most commonly, chest pain is associated with angina, where the heart muscle fails to receive oxygen. But, there can be other reasons that trigger sudden chest pain.

Thus, consult with a chest pain specialist to determine the predictive rules to understand the reasons behind chest pain. Even predictive tools can help assess the condition in patients suffering from severe chest pain. This helps in clinical decision making. 

Types of chest pain

Chest pain can be classified into various types, such as –

  • Cardiac – In the case of cardiac chest pain, there is a clear sign of blockage within the blood vessels.
  • Possible cardiac – In the case of possible cardiac chest pain, it is not clear whether the pain is due to heart-related ailments. Thus, tests are conducted to affirm the disease.
  • Non-cardiac – In non-cardiac chest pain, it occurs due to an anxiety attack or inflammation of pectoral tissue or pulmonary embolism.

So, it is very much essential to identify the accurate disease by undergoing a specific blood test or any other imaging or procedure base test. Let’s get to know them to help you detect any severe indications.

Test conducted to detect the reason behind chest pain

Often, a combination of all these tests is done to determine the cause of the chest pain. The latest advancement has brought in a high-sensitive serial assessment of cardiac troponin (cTn) blood tests. It assists in detecting the troponin T content in the blood. 

This protein determines whether the patient would suffer from a heart attack. This test can also reveal whether the patient has suffered from any heart attack recently or if there is any heart muscle damage.

Factors to predict chest pain severity

It is very much essential to determine the category of chest pain, and thus you must consider these factors:

  • Age (Cardiovascular risk can increase with time)
  • Family history of coronary artery disease
  • Overall condition of the health
  • Severe and persistent chest pain that fails to go away
  • Feeling extreme pressure on the chest

Symptoms of chest pain associated with heart ailments

Chest pain is the primary symptom of artery blockage, and heart attack and is an indicator of coronary artery disease. However, many patients report feeling vague pain and discomfort. 

Here is the level of chest pain that indicates a heart-related disease:

  • Tightness or pressure on your chest.
  • Crushing pain spreads from the chest to jaw, shoulders, neck and arm.
  • There is a slow rise in the intensity of the pain, and it keeps getting worse due to everyday activities.
  • Compression on the chest with shortness of breath.

Along with these cold sweats, dizziness, and vomiting are clear indications of heart-related disease that require immediate consultation with a chest pain specialist.

Symptoms of chest pain associated with other ailments

Chest pain has always been considered a symptom of heart-related disease, but there might be other underlying reasons that can lead to it. 

Digestive causes

Heartburn, gallbladder problems and swallowing disorder can also lead to chest pain. But, these have a clear association with the body’s digestive system.  

Lung disorders

A blood clot within the lungs, inflammation of the lungs, and high blood pressure can also be a reason behind severe chest pain.

Muscle & bone ailments

Injury in the ribs and sore chest muscles are the primary reason behind chest pain. 

Symptoms distinguish the chest pain associated with other conditions, rather than the heart, are – sour taste or a sensation of food in the mouth, trouble swallowing, the pain increases when coughing and deep breathing and the pain lasts for several hours.


Chest pain can also occur due to anxiety or smallpox. Thus, it is advised to seek immediate professional help without any delay. To lead a healthy life, it is necessary to incorporate specific lifestyle changes. You must maintain a nutritious diet, quit smoking, and exercise regularly. However, do not ignore the complications and book an appointment with an experienced and certified medical specialist at ILS Hospitals.

9 Deadly Sins of Neurological Misdiagnosis

It is imperative to diagnose any disease accurately for proper treatment to avoid any complications. However, neurological diagnosis have a lot of complications, and the most common hindrance the doctor usually faces is a diagnostic error. The consequences can be minor to major, according to the patient’s disease. And, the sole reason behind the misdiagnosis is the attribute of multiple conditions.

Through medical examination and conducting tests, it is possible to diagnose the medical issue. But, too many symptoms make the assessment challenging. Usually, neurological disorders require immediate treatment, and it has the possibility of damaging the condition of the body.

Here we have a compile of the common neural conditions that face misinterpretation. The list can help to prevent worse conditions. This would help you beware and opt for repetitive tests to get 100% confirmation of the medical condition.

Multiple Sclerosis

The body’s immune system attacks the protective layer of the nerve and slowly degrades it. The central nervous system is mostly affected by this disorder. And, the general scan report reveals that the patient has lesions around the spinal cord. Now, the problem is that all spinal cord lesions do not indicate multiple sclerosis leading to misdiagnosis. 

Vitamin B12 Disorder 

This disorder is a misinterpretation of  MS or Multiple sclerosis because of the general symptoms of fatigue, tingling sensation in the hands and feet and mental confusion. Furthermore, only a blood test can determine the deficiency of Vitamin B12 because it plays a crucial role in maintaining the myelin sheath of the nerve.


This is a very sensitive issue and requires emergency treatment. It is often thought to be Bell’s Palsy as the symptoms are quite similar. Moreover, the symptoms include vision impairment, numbness of the face, trouble walking, headache, confusion, migraine, intoxication and vertigo.


This is also a medical condition that faces misinterpretation and generally occurs in elderly patients. The symptoms are quite similar to the late-life depression condition, which leads to cognitive impairment.


These often face misinterpretation as sinus infections which leads to improper treatment. In this condition, the patient usually suffers from an intense headache and a throbbing effect on the

side of the head. The patient becomes too sensitive to sound, smell, and light, which can trigger a blur vision. Moreover, the symptoms also include vomiting, nausea, and fainting, which can occur in extreme cases.

Radiologically Isolated Syndrome

People with Radiologically Isolated Syndrome face a misinterpretation of suffering from MS or Multiple sclerosis. Moreover, the MRI report states that the patient has lesions on the brain nerves. Now, as the disease progresses, the symptoms become quite similar to MS. So, it is an early indicator of MS.


It is a disorder of the vertebra where you will find inflammation of the vertebral column. The symptoms are quite similar to MS or Multiple sclerosis, and thus, it also faces misinterpretation. Further, the symptoms also include joint pain and fatigue. Moreover, proper neurological diagnosis is the need of the hour.


It is a condition that indicates damage to the nerve. Moreover, it is also known as peripheral neuropathy. This medical condition affects the nervous system, excluding the brain and spinal. However, it is quite common in people with high blood glucose levels and thus it faces misinterpretation. The symptoms include loss of coordination of the muscles and difficulty in movement. Moreover, in extreme cases, it also gets mistaken as Multiple Sclerosis.


It is a chronic autoimmune disorder, and it also goes through misinterpretation as MS or Multiple sclerosis. Most of the female population has to face this disorder more than the male. The symptoms are joint swelling, fatigue, muscle pain, and headache. On examination, the doctor can find butterfly-shaped rashes that cover the cheek and bridge of the nose. A single diagnostic test cannot interpret lupus, and several laboratory tests are run. This helps the doctor to confirm the condition of lupus.


Misinterpretation of any disease can prove to be deadly as the patient fails to receive the proper treatment, and that too at the right time. Thus, it is necessary to opt for a hospital that can provide high-end medical services and a premium diagnostic center. At ILS Hospitals, you meet a team of specialists whose primary responsibility is to give the best treatment.

Frequently Asked Questions About Asthma Attack

Asthma can become life-threatening if you ignore treating the condition at the right time. More than 25 million people across the globe suffer from asthma. And, it is also familiar as bronchial asthma, which affects your lungs.

During an asthma attack, the muscles around the airways face constriction, disrupting the proper airflow. The lining of the airways also becomes swollen, and the body starts to secrete more mucus. This eventually blocks the airflow from the lungs and into the lungs.

Asthma usually gets triggered by certain environmental conditions, and based on the severity, it is of two types –

  • Intermittent – When the asthma symptoms come and go.
  • Persistent – When asthma stays for a more extended period, the symptom changes from mild to severe. This is also known as an asthma attack.

If chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlaps it, the condition becomes ACOS. And, this makes it quite challenging to treat the condition.

Now, you might have certain queries in your mind about asthma. We are about the answer some of the most frequently asked questions –

 1. Who is at risk of getting asthma?

Asthma can occur at any age, and it can start at the age of 5 or when you reach adulthood. Further, exposure to allergen or tobacco smoke can trigger asthma. Even passive smokers or third hand smokers also have the probability of getting asthma. According to recent data, a female child tends to develop asthma from birth more than a male child.

 2. What are the common elements that trigger asthma?

Asthma can occur due to allergic or non-allergic reasons or genetic conditions. It can get triggered due to air pollution, dust mite allergy, exercise, cockroaches or other pests, tobacco smoke, strong chemicals, occupational exposure, damp areas and pet dander.

 3. What are the signs of asthma?

Some obvious signs and symptoms can help you identify respiratory infections or asthma. Severe pressure on the chest while breathing, chest tightness, coughing, shortness of breath, wheezing, difficulty in breathing, etc. Especially at night, asthma tends to develop more severe symptoms. But, as asthma reaches its chronic stage, the signs and symptoms tend to change.

 4. How can you diagnose asthma?

A specialist would check your medical history and other information that you provide. This helps to identify the presence of asthma. The health care specialist may ask you about the symptoms and presence of any other lung disease. You need to go through a spirometer test, along with a blood test and skin test. The airflow through the lungs is diagnosed closely, and then there is a progression in treatment.

 5. How can medications help to control the symptoms of asthma?

The doctor may prescribe medications to aid you in controlling the signs and asthma. Children usually use an inhaler. Other than that –

  • Bronchodilators – This helps to relax the muscles around the airways and allows normal passage of air by removing the mucus.
  • Anti-inflammatory medicines – The airways get swollen, and thus, the entry and exit of the air into the lungs face restriction. This medicine reduces the swelling and also restricts mucus production.
  • Biologic therapies – If inhaler therapy does not provide you with any benefit, biologic treatment is the only treatment.

Moreover, you cannot take asthma medicine directly. But instead, metered-dose inhalers or nebulizers are used.

 6. How can you control asthma?

At first, you need to understand the symptoms and then act accordingly. If your occupational area has any irritant substance, try to work from home. Try to use an inhaler whenever you face breathing problems. Moreover, stay conscious during weather changes and try not to catch a cold.

 7. Is it possible to monitor asthma at home? 

You can easily track asthma symptoms and manage it. The specialist recommends the peak flow meter to understand how fast you can blow out air from your lungs. Based on the results, you can understand whether the symptoms would get worse.


Thus, whenever you get an asthma attack, do not panic. Instead, reach out for your rescue inhaler and dial the emergency number. You need to keep asthma under check, especially at night, because asthma worsens at these odd hours. At ILS Hospitals, you will get prompt emergency services without any delay and the best treatment facilities to control asthma.

What Are The Causes of Nerve Damage

Nerve damage can occur due to more than 80 different reasons. And, each reason has different symptoms and requires specific treatment. You might know that the nervous system is the core part of our body that decides our existence. 

Everything is under the supervision of the body’s nervous system, starting from controlling breathing to sensation and muscular movements.  

There are three types of nerves – Autonomic, Motor and Sensory and the level of damage can occur equally in all these three.

Various types of symptoms indicate chances of nerve damage, but the category and extent of nerve damage usually depend on the affected location. 

Moreover, the chances of peripheral nerve damage are quite higher than those in your brain and spinal cord.

The most common symptoms are 

  • Sweating too much or too little
  • Dry eyes and mouth 
  • Lightheadedness
  • Constipation 
  • Dysfunction in the bladder
  • Sexual dysfunction
  • Muscle atrophy
  • Sensitivity towards external stimuli
  • Severe pain

In certain situations, you can feel more than one symptom at a time. And, this is an indication that you have a damaged nerve which requires immediate treatment. 

The most common reasons for nerve damage are

Nerve damages are quite hard to detect, and thus, you must not ignore these reasons and opt for a prompt diagnosis.

Nutrition deficiency

Our body requires a well-balanced amount of vitamins, minerals, protein, carbohydrates etc. Nutritional deficiency can lead to affecting the internal organs of the body. Primarily, deficiency

of vitamin B6 and B12 can lead to weakness, burning, sensation, and even develop gastric problems.

Infection disease 

Ignoring the infections in their primary stage can affect the nerve cells of your body. The infections that occur due to HIV, Hepatitis C, and Lyme disease have quite a high rate of nerve-damaging tendency.


As the disease advances, people who have diabetes suffer from nerve damage. The most severe complication is diabetic neuropathy which affects all three types of neurons. In the initial stage, it can generate a burning sensation.

Side effects of drug

If you are on a high medication or tend to take drugs deliberately or unintentionally, then there is a high chance of nerve damage. Certain drugs that are used to treat HIV have the potential to cause neural damage. Even alcohol or intake of toxic materials such as arsenic can damage the nerves to a great extent.


Any trauma or pressure on the nerve can lead to severe pain, which causes nerve damage if left without treatment. The nerve endings near your neck have a high chance of getting affected. Further, a crash injury has the chance to compress the nerves.


Cancer can lead to a nutritional deficiency which later on affects the nervous functions. Further, several types of radiation and chemotherapy are used to treat cancer, which is quite harmful to the nerves.

Autoimmune disease

Autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis can attack the nerve cells causing permanent damage. Even inflammatory bowel disease has the possibility to cause severe nerve pain as well as damage.

Bone marrow disorder

If abnormal protein is present in the blood, such as monoclonal gammopathy, bone cancer, or lymphoma can affect peripheral neuropathy. Even though the chances are quite vain, the reasons can’t be put aside.

Treatment for nerve damage

Further, kidney diseases, liver disease, hypothyroidism, and disorder in the connective tissue can also risk damaging the nerves. If the nerve pain becomes unbearable, you must consult with a neurologist. Early diagnosis has the potential to reduce the chances of permanent damage.

At the basic level, tests are done, and nutritional level is checked. Along with that physical therapy, specialists recommend medications such as pain relievers. Even antidepressants, along with anti-anxiety drugs, are also given. At ILS Hospitals, you get the best treatment for nerve damage.

Angiogram: Everything You Need to Know

If there is a possibility of blockage within the artery or narrowed blood vessels, it should be assessed on time. And, for a proper diagnostic test, doctors recommend an angiogram. 

This helps comprehend the present condition of the heart, brain and other parts of the body. 

Angiogram test in Kolkata helps detect blood vessel abnormalities, such as blood clots, plague deposits, etc. This further prevents the risk of heart attack or heart failure.

What is an Angiogram?

It is also known as an arteriogram. This test provides computed images of the blood vessels running through different organs of the body. Through X-ray imaging technology, a clear picture of the blood vessels is derived. 

A long narrow tube, called a catheter, is inserted into the artery, usually near the arm’s region or groin area. A type of dye is injected into the blood, and then through X-ray machines, a series of images are taken, called angiograms.

This dye makes the path of blood flow visible, and the images provide a clear perspective of the condition of blood vessels. Primary cardiovascular diseases that require angiogram testing are coronary arteriosclerosis, vascular stenosis, and aneurysm.

Symptoms due to which doctors recommend angiogram testing

  • Chest pain that can be associated with angina.
  • Pain in the chest extends towards your neck and arm.
  • Frequent chest pain that lasts for more than 5 mins and then subdues.
  • Inaccurate result of non-invasive heart stress test.
  • Major injury or problem within the blood vessel.
  • Congenital issues related to the valve of the heart.
  • Has already been through a stroke, heart failure, or heart attack.
  • Underlying symptoms of coronary artery disease that required surgery.

Usually, an angiogram test in Kolkata is followed by a certain non-invasive heart test, such as an electrocardiogram, an echocardiogram or a stress test.

How to prepare for a coronary angiogram?

Often angiograms are also known as emergency tests, but this has to be scheduled in advance. And, you are given sufficient time to prepare. Angiogram requires a specialist and a well-maintained catheterization lab.

You will be given a set of instructions to follow and restrictions on certain medications. In general, you cannot eat or drink after midnight before the angiogram. 

Verify all your medicines from the doctor and ask him whether you are allowed to continue with them or not. People who have diabetes should always consult the doctor about insulin intake or oral medication.

What happens during the angiogram?

During an angiogram test in Kolkata, you will be asked to change into a hospital gown, and it will take about 20 to 30 minutes to complete the process. A moderate amount of sedation will be given.

There are no life-threatening complications, but somehow 5% risk remains while doing a coronary angiogram, such as excessive bleeding, injury to the artery, irregular heartbeat, allergic reaction, severe infection, etc.

What happens after the angiogram?

After the angiogram is done, you will be monitored for around 6 hours. Before you get discharged, in case of diabetes, it is advised not to intake Glucophage. Because, this can increase the risk of kidney complications.

You need to give the body some time to recover. Drink plenty of water, avoid non-alcoholic drinks, and do not put too much pressure while lifting objects. Further, keep the injected area clean.


Are you confused between angiogram and angioplasty? In the case of angioplasty, a small balloon-like structure is inserted into a block on narrowed arteries to remove the obstruction. In comparison, an angiogram is just a block detection method. 

You can get your angiogram test in Kolkata done by the best medical faculties. Visit ILS Hospitals for extensive medical care.

7 Fact About Chest Pain

Not all chest pains indicate heart attack; they can occur due to heartburn or muscle spasm. But, you must not ignore the severity of the situation. Ignoring chest pain can lead to life-threatening consequences. 

You must have an idea – of how to differentiate between heartburn and heart attack. Let’s get to know the potential reasons behind chest pain. And, always consult with a reputed chest pain specialist near you.

Common reasons behind chest pain


Angina is a medical term used to describe chest pain or a tight pressure around your chest cavity. It is not a heart attack. In this case, the amount of blood flowing through your heart muscles reduces, and it cannot meet the normal blood supply demand.

Angina typically occurs due to the build-up of plaque in the arteries. This restricts blood flow and increases the tension within the valves. The general sensations are burning and a tight grip on your chest, squeezing the chest cavity, etc.

It is of 2 types:

  • Stable – which occurs due to emotional stress.
  • Unstable – which occurs even while you are at rest.

It is a general warning sign that you have underlying coronary artery disease. And, it can lead to a heart attack if not taken immediate medical measures.


It is an inflammatory condition of the sac present around the heart, usually led by an infection. Apart from the neck or shoulder muscle, the pain rises sharply, making it difficult to breathe or swallow food. If you lie down on your back, the situation can go out of hand. 


This is also an inflammatory condition of the hot muscle where you feel severe chest pain and breathing problems, fatigue, and fever. So, contact a chest pain specialist immediately.

Aortic dchest pain specialistissection

This is a life-threatening condition and relatively uncommon where the aorta, the body’s largest artery, receives damage and tears. You may experience severe pain and a ripping sensation in your abdomen and throughout the neck.

Non-cardiac conditions

Evey chest pain might not be associated with your heart. You must be aware that other organs and tissues are related to the chest cavity – lungs, muscle, tendons, esophagus, nerves, etc.

Gastrointestinal diseases such as stomach ulcers, gallstones or any lung conditions such as pneumonia, blood clots, or a collapsed lung can also lead to chest pain. Severe panic disorder asthma or tendon strain is also a potential source of chest pain.

It is always advised to consult a chest pain specialist if you feel persistent pain or any sudden pain that lasts for more than 5 minutes.

Is there a difference in chest pain between men and women?

Based on experience shared – women, people with diabetes, and aged adults do not usually experience chest pain during a heart attack. They show other symptoms, such as dizziness, shortness of breath, nausea, chest pain radiating to both arms, etc.


This states that chest pain is not always a warning sign of a heart attack. Some people have even shared that they didn’t experience pain before a heart attack. So, always look out for signs, such as palpitation, sweating, faster heartbeat, etc.


Tests are prescribed, along with medications, to understand the present condition of the chest. Whether it is a cardiac or non-cardiac condition, based on that, treatment is advised.


Preventing chest pain means reducing medical ailments, and this can only be achieved through a healthy lifestyle. You need to maintain a strict diet, exercise, and reduce the consumption of alcohol and nicotine products. Never go for over-the-counter medicines and seek immediate help. Visit ILS Hospitals for advanced treatments for managing chest pain.


5 Things You Need To Know About Your Endoscopy

Vomiting or sore throat are common experiences and usually overlooked. Instead, people rely on over-the-counter medications to treat these problems, assuming they are not so serious.

But, persistent pain or any discomfort indicates a much more severe condition, and this is where tests are suggested. Minimally invasive medical procedures are advised to investigate symptoms and diagnose certain medical conditions. 

This helps to take a better look at the body’s internal organs. So, look for an endoscopy hospital near me.

Endoscopy is one such tool where a tube is fitted with a light and camera. And, it is introduced inside the body. This is entirely done under the strict supervision of the medical specialist.

What happens in Endoscopy?

This medical procedure generates images that help the doctor understand the body’s present anatomy. The procedure is an excellent replacement for extensive invasive surgeries or complex testing procedures. However, it can be intimidating if you haven’t gone through this procedure before. 

A small incision is made on the skin, and through that, the endoscope is inserted. Often, a tissue sample is taken to detect or screen for cancer or any other disease. This is called a biopsy. Even surgical instruments are fitted with the endoscope to treat problems such as abnormal growth in the uterus, removing an appendix, etc.

Common types of Endoscopy

Based on the part of the body where the examination will be conducted, the endoscopy procedure is named. Suppose an endoscopy of your respiratory system is required, then it is called bronchoscopy.

Endoscopy is performed by surgeons or specialists in that area, such as pulmonologists treating the lungs performing bronchoscopy.

The advantage of Endoscopy

  • It is a safe procedure and has minimal complications that come only when precautions are ignored.
  • Endoscopic is quite versatile, and it can be conducted for a wide range of medical conditions. 
  • Compared to traditional surgery, the wound or incision is quite small. 
  • It takes less than a month to heal and get back to your daily chores.

After Endoscopy, only a negligible number of patients have often reported pain, infection, bleeding, or allergic reaction due to any medication. But, there is no risk.

Preparing for an Endoscopy

Patients have often reported a stressful situation or encountering anxiety during an endoscopy. Keeping calm is the easiest method for a successful procedure. 

Always consult with your doctor about the preparation. Or, look for the best endoscopy hospital near me. You might be suggested to stop taking certain medications or not eating after midnight (just the day before the procedure).

Medications usually interfere with the examination, and temporary adjustments can be made, such as blood thinners, clopidogrel aspirin, etc.

What happens during Endoscopy?

Many patients often worry about breathing problems. But, there is nothing to worry about. The vital signs are monitored to ensure complete safety.

The patient is given a combination of anesthesia and sedition to minimize the pain and discomfort. A small opening is made, and through that, a tube is inserted into the body. The doctor continuously monitors the images. 

Difficult tasks, such as preventing internal bleeding, stitching, or taking tissue samples for testing, are performed. Upward Endoscopy lasts for about 30 minutes.


Right after the Endoscopy, you may feel bloating, nauseating, or unable to eat your regular food problem. But, within a few days, you can get back to your usual routine without any further complications.

It is always recommended to go for a follow-up visit after the Endoscopy, or if you face any complications, you must look for an endoscopy hospital near me. Visit ILS Hospitals and consult with experienced specialists.

Everything You Need To Know About Your Prostate

We understand that it is not quite usual to talk about the prostate. But, there are certain aspects that you must know to avoid medical ailments. 

Aging men often report difficulty in peeing or prostate getting enlarged. So, you need to keep an eye on the symptoms and report them to the doctor at the earliest. Prostate treatment in Kolkata has made it easier to minimize the risk and cure life-threatening conditions.

Let’s identify the gland first 

The prostate is a small male gland that is located inside the body, placed right below the bladder. If you can identify the urethra, then it is present right around it. 

The prostate is responsible for producing certain fluids that help transport the sperm. This fluid is a mixture of enzymes and hormones, and its function is to keep the sperm cells motile. 

So, the prostate has a direct connection with fertility. The semen is pushed through the urethra by the prostate muscles, which helps to ejaculate. 

Common Prostate Problems & Warning Signs

Enlarged prostate

The medical term for enlarged prostate is benign prostatic hyperplasia. More than 50% of men go through this problem, where they experience swelling of the prostate. The size increases 2x times, and its problems become more intense with age. 

The general symptoms are

  • Difficulty in peeing
  • Sudden urge to pee
  • Increase in pee time at night
  • Burning sensation while peeing
  • Painful ejaculation

The most important fact is that you must not wait for a natural cure. And, do not shy away from discussing the problem with your doctor for immediate prostate treatment in Kolkata.

Enlarged prostate is often misinterpreted as cancer by non-specialists. But there is nothing to worry about. It is 100% curable. Based on the present condition, either medication are prescribed, or surgery is recommended


It is also an inflammatory condition of the prostate. However, it is quite different from the enlarged condition. This can lead to either swollen, inflamed, or tender prostate,

The general symptoms are:

  • Urgent need to pee
  • Painful peeing
  • Painful ejaculation
  • Presence of blood in the urine
  • Continuous pain in the lower back
  • Getting a heavy feeling in the scrotum
  • Blockage in the urinary passage

There are different reasons why you may have prostatitis. And, based on the cause, a cure is prescribed. It can even be caused due to injury, stress, or damage within the nerve. 

Prostate cancer

Based on the latest report, males suffer more from prostate cancer when compared with females who have breast cancer. 

The factors that can increase the risk are

  • Family history
  • Genetic mutation or hereditary
  • Certain genetic conditions

The general symptoms are (early stage):

  • The frequent urge of peeing
  • Trouble maintaining a strong and steady flow
  • Presence of blood in the pee
  • A burning sensation while peeing
  • Painful lower back, upper thighs, chest, hip, etc.
  • Rapid weight loss
  • Shortness of breath. 
  • The pale appearance of the skin

You can get to the verge of developing prostate cancer as you age. Thus, it is very much important to be aware of the symptoms. This would further help to assess and suggest the proper treatment.

Types of Prostate Tests prescribed

  • Digital rectal exam (DRE)
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) testing
  • MRI
  • Prostate biopsy
  • Ultrasound


Following a low animal fat, more antioxidants, less carbohydrate diet, regular exercise, weight management, and reducing stress are the best ways to stay away from ailments. And, if you are witnessing one or more of the warning signs, consult with a physician. ILS Hospitals offer the best prostate treatment in Kolkata.

Advantages of Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery

Due to the instability in the spine, starting from degenerated discs to misshapen vertebrae, recurrently the pain can become unbearable. There are multiple treatment processes, and the first choice is surgery. Every reputed spine surgery hospital in Kolkata would prescribe a much safer procedure in place of the traditional operative process – i.e. Minimally invasive spine surgery.

Spine surgeries that can cure the pain through small incisions, about ½ inch through your skin, are performed through this technique. An endoscope is inserted into the incision to provide a smaller operative field in this approach. 

Do you suffer from spine problems? Should you opt for spine surgery? Let’s find out.

The types of spine treatment performed through minimally invasive spine surgery:

  • Spinal fusion for degenerative or “slipped” discs
  • Correcting a deformity
  • Decompression of any spinal tumours growth
  • Repair and stabilization of vertebral fractures
  • Fixing Lumbar spinal stenosis
  • Treating spinal infection

5 Benefits of minimally invasive spine surgery

When compared with other treatment options, minimally invasive spine surgery is considered to be the best choice because –

Less painful

Minimally invasive spine surgery involves smaller incisions which accounts for less damage. And, thus, when the surgery is accomplished, you feel less pain during the next few recovery days. Further, this also ensures that you have to intake fewer pain killers and therapeutic medicines.

Less Traumatic

The body has to bear a certain amount of trauma while going through the surgery. Further, the muscle and tissue recovery period and treatment also affect the body. But, in the case of minimally invasive surgery, no muscular cutting is involved, and just a minor incision is made that gets healed within weeks.

The recovery rate is faster

Minimally invasive surgery is suggested when other treatment procedures fail to get you relief. This can help to ease the pain you have been experiencing for months. 


Open surgery can enhance the pain due to long-term rehabilitation. In contrast, minimally invasive surgery reduces that time gap and helps you get back to normal activities at the earliest.

No-Risk and few complications

Surgery is often assumed to be synonymous with risk, but minimally invasive surgery reduces the chance of complications. The only cases of complications arise due to side effects of the anaesthesia and infection at the incision area due to negligence.

Removes chances of common surgical problems

There is no excessive blood loss, and you do not get dependent on pain medication and do not feel any post-operative pain. Further, you do not have to go through physical therapy challenges, and there are no large scars left for a lifetime.

Do you need spine surgery?

There are specific indications when minimally invasive surgery will work and when it won’t. The doctor needs to ensure complete safety, and so you might have to go through repetitive diagnosis and health evaluation. Every possible treatment would be evaluated at a spine surgery hospital in Kolkata before the surgery is considered.

How to prepare for spine surgery?

  • Quit smoking at least one 1month before surgery.
  • Exercise regularly 
  • Stop taking non-essential medications and herbal remedies
  • Antibiotics will be prescribed before and after your surgery. 
  • Instruction about what to eat or drink the night before your surgery.

What to expect during recovery?

The post-operative phase of minimally invasive spine surgery results in less damage to muscles shortens hospital stay, reduces medicines expenses, and ensures faster recovery. And, most importantly, you get to return to the normal working phase and daily activities at the earliest.

However, not all conditions can be treated through minimally invasive surgery, so you must consult with the doctors at ILS Hospitals which is the best spine surgery hospital in Kolkata. Make sure you keep all follow-up appointments.

10 Most common gynaecological problems every woman must know

At some point in time, every woman reports going through a gynaecological disorder, which severely impacts physiological and psychological health. These must not be ignored, and immediately get an appointment at a reputed gynaecology hospital in Kolkata. Because it can lead to infertility or turn into a life-threatening problem. 

Here are the common problems that you must be aware of.

1. Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

This is commonly known as PCOS, where a woman goes through irregular menstrual cycles that remain for a prolonged time. Innumerable follicles form on the ovary, which restricts the release of the egg. 


The conditions can be genetic, such as a high rate of insulin in the body or if the level of androgen increases.


The general experience is abdominal obesity, recurring acne, abnormal hair growth in the facial region, fertility issues and becoming prone to diabetes

2. Dysmenorrhoea

In regular terms, this is known as painful periods, where a woman experiences severe abdominal pain during menstruation. This is divided into two categories – Primary (no pelvic disorder is observed) and Secondary (associated with the underlying pelvic disease).


The natural chemicals secreted by the body, such as prostaglandins, result in primary dysmenorrhoea. And, endometriosis and fibroids result in secondary dysmenorrhoea.


Sudden abdominal cramp is felt, and the intensity of pain increases. This may often spread to the lower back.

3. Endometriosis

This problem is associated with the uterine lining, where the lining starts growing outside the uterus and spreads to other associated parts.


This generally occurs due to hormonal disturbances and irregular menstrual flow, problems associated with the immune system and underlying genetic factors.


Digestive troubles are most relevant and are accompanied by intense menstrual cramps and spotting between menstrual cycles.

4. Vaginitis

It is a condition where the vagina gets inflamed and can be experienced by any woman going through her reproductive phase.


This may occur due to infection, side effects of antibiotic medication, unsafe sexual intercourse, or using hormonal tables or spermicidal creams.


A burning sensation is felt while peeing, along with an itchy vagina. There is a continuous irritation, and even a foul smell is discharged from the vagina.

5. Urinary Tract Infection

This condition is also known as UTI, and it is quite common in women of all age groups. The condition occurs due to bacterial infection in the vagina that spreads to the urethra and bladder and, in severe cases, affects the kidney.


If someone is already suffering from pelvic nerve/muscles problems, they get susceptible to such infections. Further, any blockage within the urethra, bladder, or kidney can result in UTI.


A burning sensation is felt while peeing, and the urine appears cloudy with a strong odour. In extreme cases, blood tinges are also found in the urine. This is accompanied by fever, backache, nausea, and if left untreated, can affect the kidneys.

6. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

The problem is associated with the body’s genital organs, including the fallopian tube, uterus, pelvic peritoneum, and others.


If someone uses IUCD or has a medical history of pelvic inflammation or has multiple sexual partners then this disease can occur.


The general experience includes extreme pain in the lower abdominal region, abnormal vaginal discharge, fever, lethargy, vaginal bleeding and painful sexual intercourse.

7. Genital Herpes

This is a sexually transmitted disease, a form of viral infection. It is associated with sores and blisters.


Being a communicable disease, this spreads from an infected person during anal or oral sex.


The primary symptoms are flu, chills and fatigue, which develops into muscular pain, nausea and blisters around the genital organs.

8. Dyspareunia

This problem is also known as painful sexual intercourse, and it occurs due to structural conditions or even psychological reasons that can affect the person.


Vaginitis, PID, narrow vagina or vulval infection can lead to this condition. Even structural issues such as thick hymen can generate Dyspareunia.


Pain during penetration remains for a couple of hours after the intercourse. 

9. Fibroids

Muscular tumour-like growth is observed within the uterus but is rarely cancerous. There is a variation in size, shape and location.


The reasons can be hormonal or genetic, and no other general reason is found.


Extreme pressure is felt in the lower abdomen, along with heavy periods and bleeding between the cycle. This also results in painful sexual intercourse.

10. Ovarian Cysts

Women of any age group can be affected by ovarian cysts, where sacs filled with fluids develop in the ovaries.


This problem may result from pelvic infection, hormonal issues and endometriosis.


In an abdominal region, a swelling or bloating is felt, accompanied by nausea and vomiting.

What is the Cure?

Certain gynaecological problems can be treated by maintaining g a healthy lifestyle, personal hygiene, sexual education or taking medicines for symptomatic relief. However, antibiotics are also prescribed at the gynaecology hospital in Kolkata based on the severity. Whereas in some instances, a doctor would suggest surgery or hormonal therapies. 

ILS Hospitals offer the best medical treatment for gynaecological problems; consult with a gynaecologist today!