Kidney Donation & Transplant in India

In India, about 120 kidney transplant centres are conducting nearly 4000 kidney operations every year. The transplanting of kidneys started in 1970. Since then, India has been a prominent country in this stream of treatment. Initially, during the first ten years, doctors tried to master immune suppression and surgical techniques. It was a great success, and the number of kidney transplants increased.

Organ donation and transplantation became common in later years. Since many illegal organ donations were made, the government approved the Transplantation of Human Organ Act to stop unlawful selling & buying of organs. This act proposed that only deceased donation is legal.

Laws and Rules for Transplanting and Donating Kidney

The government of India passed a new rule along with the main requirements of the Transplantation of Human Organ Act. It includes the following.

1 – Living Donation

The relatives of the patients like father, mother, sister, son, daughter, and spouse can donate a kidney. Likewise, grandparents have also been added to the list in the new publication. It is mandatory to provide the relationship proof of the first relative by undergoing a genetic test or providing legal documents. In case if the donor is not a first relative, you will need special permission from the committee appointed by the government. An interview will also be conducted to prove the purpose.

2 – Brain-Death

There are two certificates to prove brain–death. And the two must be nominated by the proper authority of the government and the doctors. One of the persons nominating the certificate should be a specialised neurologist.

3 – Instruction of transplant activities by creating an AC (Authorization Committee) and AA (Appropriate Authority)

Every state and union territory of India will have these rules. The role of the AC is to control the process of arrangement to favour or reject kidney transplants between the donors and the recipient other than a first-degree relative. One of the main intentions is to assure that the donor is not demoralised for financial consideration to donate a kidney. The Authorization Committee will check the joint application and interview them to content the motive.

Now the removal of the kidney, storing, and transplantation is taken care of by the Appropriate Authority. Every hospital cannot undergo these procedures as it is required for the AA to approve the hospitals. The AA will only allow a hospital to conduct a kidney or any other organ transplantation after a detailed inspection.

The inspection will continue regularly to confirm that the hospital follows the proper standards and quality of kidney transplantation and aftercare. Once the AA is satisfied with the hospital’s facilities, a license will be issued for 5 years and renewed later.


The number of diabetic patients in India is growing drastically, which can result in severe kidney failure. One important thing to do is to try to prevent kidney problems. If a person suffers from kidney failure, it should be diagnosed at an early stage to treat it with medications. You can consult top nephrologists for a kidney transplant in Kolkata India, in case of failure.

The Transplant Registry Records says that more than 2.5 lakh people suffer from the last stage of kidney failure. A few of them undergo dialysis, and some are under heavy medications. If the deceased donation rate increases, it will help a lot of patients suffering from kidney failures. For further inquiries and assistance, you can visit

Follow These Tips For A Healthier Immunity During Winter Season

Winter season, the season most preferred over summer by many of us. The cold season provides relief from scorching heat and high temperatures to everyone. But everything has pros and cons, the cold season is no special case. It is also the time when our immune system slows down and brings some troubles to our bodies.

Good immune system is the foundation of a healthy body. We understand how exhausting it is to deal with winter cough and colds, so on that note, ILS Hospitals, one of the best hospitals in Kolkata and Agartala would like to share some tips which you can follow for a healthier immunity.

The immune-boosting tips are as follows:

1. Watch your diet:

To build your immunity, you should make it a “rule” that what goes on your plate is healthy and agreeable to your body. Seasonal fruits and vegetables should be inside your refrigerator. Let’s look at the immune-boosting foods:

  • Spinach

  • Mustard greens

  • Mushrooms

  • Broccoli

  • Chickpeas

  • Strawberries

  • Oranges

  • Sweet potatoes.

2. Include herbs and spices:

Our country is the land of spices. Thankfully, the Indian diet revolves around immune-boosting spices like turmeric (haldi), pepper, cinnamon, fennel, cumin, clove, asafoetida (hing) and so on. We also have medicinal herbs like basil (tulsi), coriander and liquorice (mulethi), proven to be winter’s best friend. Feel free to relish on these useful herbs and spices during the cold season.

3. Hydration is the key:

Many people mistakenly believe that winter means not bothering much about filling the water bottles. They are wrong! It does not matter whatever the season is, hydration is always the key. Apart from water, you can opt for hot beverages like soups, herbal teas (or good old masala chai), hot chocolate milk and the infamous turmeric latte (haldi doodh), for strengthening your immunity.

4. Go out and exercise:

Let’s not forget the importance of exercise during winters. If exercise is not up to your liking, try outdoor sports like badminton, football and cricket.

5. Relax and rest:

A well-rested body has strong immunity power. Get near about 8 hours of sleep and give your body rest whenever it is required.

6. Remove stress from your life:

Winter blues are common and real. Stress and depression are the worst killers, the cells of our body react to every emotion. So, just be stress-free by doing what you love and spend time with your loved ones.

We hope you liked our simple immune-boosting tips. You can always come to ILS Hospitals, for any medical reason. We are one of the best multi-speciality hospitals in Kolkata.

How Too Much Salt Consumption Can Deteriorate Your Health?

Food without spices is somewhat difficult to imagine, especially in a country like India. However, excessive use of anything can have adverse effects on our health. And one of the most overused things in every kitchen is without doubt, salt. Over consumption of salt can cause severe problems to the heart and can ultimately cause cardiac emergency.

Salt is very important in terms of taste and its composition. Sodium and chlorine is essential for our body to function well. Moreover, the addition of the Iodine to the salt makes it even more vital for daily consumption. However, over-consumption can be drastic, especially for the heart and the blood vessels.

Salt and Health

Too much salt can exert excessive pressure on the interior walls of the blood vessels, namely the arteries. The muscles of the arteries grow stronger in order to cope up with this extra strain. It works for a while, but eventually, the space left for blood flow becomes even more restricted and elevates the pressure even more.

This goes in a cyclic pattern, usually over a period of years, after which, the chances of having clogged arteries increase significantly. It can also cause the arteries to burst. The respective organ receiving blood from any of the particular artery gets cut off from its blood supply and gets damaged.

Now we have to narrow our topic to heart and its restricted artery. At the beginning, the heart receives a slightly lesser amount of blood. It triggers a condition called the angina, a sharp pain in the chest, especially while being active. Slowly, the cardiac cells lose their affectivity and functional ability, mainly due to lesser exposure to oxygen and other nutrients.

Salt Consumption and Health

If the salt over-consumption continues, bursting or clogging of the artery becomes inevitable. This may lead to heart attack, this is one of the major clause which claims several lives every year.

The good news is, lowering blood pressure and eliminating a large portion of salt from diet can make a significant change in the overall health condition. Also, it is advised to take timely measures for the same.

In fact, mitigating the excess amount of salt from the diet is actually one of the easiest ways of keeping the heart healthy. Without a doubt, it is much easier than consuming a lot of medicines.

Cardiology – Harbor These 5 Healthy Habits for a Healthy Heart

Practice makes one perfect, but habit plays a crucial role in shaping our lives as well. What done once in a while, if becomes a habit, creates a series of complications. Today we will decode 5 habits that will change your heart forever. It will literally restore your heart to its former health and will keep cardiac emergencies at bay.

So, let’s begin the countdown

1. Take good care of your dental health

Though it may sound very irrelevant, but healthy teeth and gums will help you to have an overall healthy self, that includes your heart as well. It has been found that those having periodontal diseases are at more risk of having heart ailments too. The bacteria that causes gum diseases can travel through the bloodstream and causes complications to the heart as well.

To keep it at bay, brush and floss your teeth regularly.

dental health

2. Avoid trans-fat at all cost

It is often not possible (or even recommended) to completely eliminate the fat from the diet, but be sure to watch out for the hidden trans-fat in the everyday grocery list. Trans-fat can clog your arteries, which leads to rising of the bad cholesterol and lowering of the good cholesterol in the bloodstream.

Before buying snacks such as fries and crisps, read the label, ensure it has 0% trans-fat.

Avoid trans-fat

3. Have adequate sleep

One factor that often skips our mind is the quality and quantity of sleep we have. Insufficient sleep has been linked with the pressure build-up and inflammation in the heart. Special care should be practiced in case you are dealing with loud snoring and sleep apnea, as these might be an early sign for arrhythmias.

Have a sound sleep for six to eight hours a day to keep your body relaxed and disease free.

Have adequate sleep

4. Avert any second hand smoke

Though sharing has been encouraged since childhood to imprint healthy social and emotional impact, sharing second hand smoke can bring catastrophic results.  Even if you are not smoking directly, being present on the site or with the person can harm your heart directly by building up plaque in the bloodstream. It can lead to a cardiac emergency.

Avoid hanging out with people who are chain smokers and be firm about your resolution.

Avert any second hand smoke

5. Increase mobility while sitting or travelling for hours

Sitting idle for long hours at a stretch can be extremely harmful for your health. This is more likely to happen if you are either involved in sitting jobs or often travel to long distance for it. Immobilization for long hours can cause deep vein thrombosis blood clot in the blood vessels.

sitting or travelling for hours

Try to take a short break every couple of hours during the work and move around to mobilize your muscles.

Why a Healthy Liver can help you Lead a Healthy Life?

The human body comprises of several organ systems and each of these consists of several organs. Every organ plays a significant role in maintaining and regulating a healthy and functional life. One of such important organs is the liver. It produces cholesterol and mainly regulates the body metabolism. In simple word, this controls whether you are slim or overweight.

The cholesterol produced by the liver is essential for the body and it becomes a threat only when it accumulates beyond a safe limit. Several times, the liver encounters several malfunctions and abnormalities, which makes liver treatment inevitable. Minor problems associated with liver lead to problems like bloating, gas or constipation. The severe ones cause more serious threats and requires surgery.

Healthy Liver

It is crucial that one eats healthy food to provide the liver with all the nutrients necessary for it. This way it keeps functioning in a normal way and keeps the body weight in check. In contrast, when one stuffs his belly with fried food and toxic substances, he ends up burdening the liver and also a need for liver treatment arises.

In order to cope up with the highly processed food, the liver has to get extremely indulged in detoxifying the body. Simultaneously, it skips the function of mobilizing fat altogether. With time, the fat and cholesterol gets accumulated in the bloodstream. It causes several conditions such as cardiovascular disorders, arthritis, diabetes, hormonal imbalance and many more.

Healthy Liver

It is important to keep the liver healthy at all times, so that it can keep the body’s metabolism and toxic level in check. It can be done easily by controlling the proportion of food along with exercising regularly. Also, limiting the amount of alcohol being consumed helps a lot. Though occasional drinking does not cause any significant deterioration of the liver, drinking regularly can cause cirrhosis.

One should also keep a distance for over the counter drugs, especially the un-prescribed pain killers. In any case, experiment with health is a bad idea, a doctor’s advice is compulsory before consuming any medicine. Also, one should watch out for some of the unconventional methods of liver damage such as Hepatitis B and C. These diseases can be kept at bay by avoiding IV drugs, multiple sexual partners, body piercing and tattoos with infected needles.

These small changes can make a significant difference in the liver condition and improve the overall health stability.

4 Short Term Complications Associated with Preterm Childbirth – Part II

The ideal time is essential for everything and for a very good reason, pregnancy period is no exception. Any baby born before completing 37 weeks of pregnancy suffers several long term as well as short term complications. We have discussed four of the more common short term complications suffered by a preterm baby earlier; and in this article, we will continue with four more such complications. So, here we go!

1. Blood profile troubles– Preterm babies are at risk of several abnormalities regarding their blood profile. Anemia and infant jaundice are two of the major concerns. In case of anemia, the red blood corpuscles (RBC) in the body drop significantly. Though it is not uncommon for babies to suffer from low rate of RBC during the initial months, but it becomes critical in case the count drops significantly. Repetitive blood taken out for carrying out lab tests also acts as a contributing factor for the same.

Infant jaundice is the condition characterized by discoloration and yellowing of skin and eye of newborn. This condition arises when the blood of the baby contains too much bilirubin (yellow pigmented substance) secreted from the liver or RBC.

Blood profile trouble - Premature Birth

2. Weak immune system– Due to the fact that a baby is born before it was ideally supposed to, the preemies are born with an underdeveloped immune system as compared to the baby born on time. Thus, they cannot cope up with infections effectively, which is quite common in that period. With less-effective immune system, the infection quickly spreads through the bloodstream and may lead to life threatening situations.

Weak Immune System - Preterm Childbirth

3. Gastrointestinal problems – A preterm baby is more susceptible to have an under-developed gastrointestinal system. This causes several associated complications like necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC). In this condition, the linings of the bowel wall gets injured, as soon as the baby starts feeding. For this reason, it is recommended to only breastfeed till six months to lower the risks of NEC.

Gastrointestinal problems - Preterm Childbirth

4. Metabolism problems – As soon as the baby is in the world and begins to feed, the importance of metabolic system comes into play. Preemies are likely to suffer from metabolic issues. The prime cause is, that the liver of a preterm baby cannot effectively convert the stored glycogen into glucose.

Metabolism problems - Preterm Childbirth

ILS Hospitals offers extensive care for preterm babies, until the time they become healthy enough to sustain on their own.

Heart Attack – 5 Alarming Signs of Possible Heart Attack

Several symptoms of heart attacks can be widely confused and overlooked by most of us. Thus, several people fail to get proper treatment on time. Know these to save a life.

As you are already familiar with the 5 signs of possible heart attack in our previous article. According to cardiologists the five alarming signs which mean possible heart attack.

  1. Sweating

Though it is quite common to sweat while doing any strenuous work, as a matter of fact, it is not unusual to sweat during summers. But sweating without any explainable reason can be quite alarming. In fact, it might be a sign your body is giving you of a possible heart attack. Get a checkup, even in case you are having a doubt.

Sweating - Signs of Possible Heart Attack

  1. Irregular heartbeat

Another symptom that must be calibrated carefully is any abnormal heart rate. Heart beats faster in case of running or being excited, similarly it gets slower in case of being depressed or sad. But if any abnormalities are observed, it could be indicating something more serious than extra caffeine or inadequate sleep.

Irregular Heartbeat - Signs of Possible Heart Attack

This condition is medically termed as trial fibrillation and is one of the signs of potential heart attack.

  1. Unstoppable cough

Usually, a cough (or a couple of) isn’t something that is related to heart. But repetitive cough without any cold or throat infection that won’t stop is a possible cause of heart attack. Especially a long lasting cough which produces ink or white mucus.

Unstoppable Cough - Signs of Possible Heart Attack

The reason of constant cough is that the heart cannot keep up with the requirement of the body and causes the blood to back flow to the lungs. If not taken care on time, this may result in bloating. The doctor may also look for swollen feet and ankles.

  1. Pain that spreads to the throat or jaw

Under normal conditions, the throat and jaw pain are mostly caused by a sinus, muscle pain or a cold. If the pain primarily generates from a chest discomfort that eventually travels upwards to the neck and jaw, it might be another sign of possible heart attack.

Pain that spreads to the throat or jaw

  1. Snoring

Snoring is that brief period of time, when the breathing pauses momentarily. Most of the people snore at some stage of life, for some, it is while aging, while other young people snore after a tiring day at the office. Snoring for a long time is yet another indication of the body towards a possible heart attack.

Snoring - Signs of Possible Heart Attack

If you or any of your friends or family member experiences any of these symptoms, don’t keep making wild guesses and wait for it to get over on its own. Instead, let a doctor address the situation and give proper advice after assessing it.

What Are The 5 Probable Signs Of Heart Attack You Should Watch Out For?

We have come across the saying ‘follow your heart’, but are you paying enough attention to your heart? Can you tell when your heart is not functioning properly? Probably not. In reality, heart attack necessarily does not onset with a clutch over heart closely followed by falling on the floor, like the way it is depicted in the movies. In fact, according to Cardiologists several heart attacks do not even begin with heart or even in the chest. Without proper knowledge it is often difficult to tell.

In case you are in doubt whether it is cardiac arrest or not, it is always advised to go for a checkup, especially if you are aged, overweight or have high blood pressure, sugar or cholesterol.

Look out for these signs in your loved ones and yourselves, which might be signs of heart attack.

  1. Chest Discomfort

It is the most alarming sign of any cardiac arrest. In case any of the artery is blocked, i.e. experiencing heart attack, it is more likely to suffer pain, pressure or tightness in the chest. The discomfort may vary from minute to mild to severe. Some describes it as a feeling of having a heavy object on the chest, while others describe it as a burning sensation.

Though some people experience heart attack even without any chest discomfort, especially women, it should be calibrated carefully.

Chest Discomfort - ILS Hospitals

  1. Pain which spreads to Arms

Due to blockage of artery, the left side of the body experience pain. It initiates from the chest and spreads through the arm, specifically on the left side. It may last up to a few minutes, and can occur in episodes, i.e. the pain comes and goes away.

Pain which spreads to arms - ILS Hospitals

  1. Heartburn or Indigestion

The occurrence of any or all of these signals should be considered as a possible sign of heart attack. Moreover, some may vomit along with it. As per Cardiologist, women are more likely to experience it as compared to men. These symptoms get easily neglected by most of the people as these symptoms happen to people every now and then due to acid reflux or improper diet as well.

Heartburn - ILS Hospitals

  1. Fatigue or Exhaustion

Feeling fatigued even after doing some light work such as climbing stairs or taking a stroll. It may be a sign of weakness and it is not alarming if it occurs once or twice, but repeated occurrence of unexplained weakness, especially for women, should not be neglected and immediate help should be sought.

Fatigue or Exhaustion - ILS Hospitals

  1. Feeling Dizzy

Experiencing dizziness or out of balance or feel faint, it should be closely observed. Though it may be a result of inadequate food. But if it is combined with chest congestion, then it should ring a bell.

Feeling Dizzy - ILS Hospitals

These signs are the most prominent of that of heart attack. So educate yourself, your family and colleagues for an early detection and timely treatment.

Watch out 5 more symptoms of possible heart attack here.

Maternity – Pre Term Birth: 4 Short-Term Complications of Preterm Birth

The normal gestation period is 260 to 280 days, ideally consisting of 40 weeks. Though several babies are born prior to this time period, if any baby is born before this duration, he/she is referred as a premature baby. If a baby is born before 37 weeks of pregnancy, the baby is prone to short term as well as long term health complications. Generally, they do need more care and hospital stay as compared to the ones born in ideal time.

Premature Baby - ILS Hospitals

Most of the babies born early possess low birth weight, which plays an important role in several aspects. While some of the complications may exist since the birth, others may develop later in life.

The following complications are experienced during the first few weeks/months of birth-

  1. Breathing complication- Due to the presence of an immature respiratory system, a premature baby may experience trouble in breathing. This is primarily due to lack of a substance called ‘surfactant’, which enables contraction and expansion, which enables breathing.Preterm babies may also acquire ‘Broncho-Pulmonary Dysplasia’, chronic lung disease and ‘apnea’ which result is difficulty breathing with prolonged pauses.
  2. Brain malfunction– A preterm baby is highly prone to intra-ventricular hemorrhage, the rupture and bleeding of an artery in the brain. Though most of them gets resolved on its own, some babies need medical help. Excessive bleeding can cause permanent brain damage.
    Excessive bleeding can also lead to hydrocephalus, i.e. accumulation of fluid in the brain, for which surgery remains the only feasible solution to release the fluid accumulation.
  3. Cardiac ailments– Patent Ductus Arterious (PDA) and Hypotension (low blood pressure) are the two most experienced heart problems among preterm babies. PDA is a disease in which a natural opening exists between two major blood vessels from the heart.PDA often gets corrected on its own, but if it is left untreated, it can result in uncontrolled blood flow and eventually leads to heart attack. Low blood pressure needs medicines and intravenous support and occasionally blood transfusion.
  4. Thermo regulation problem– A preterm baby may lose body heat quickly, as he cannot produce an adequate amount of heat to keep balanced heat. The prime reason for the same being, the baby’s body lacks adequate amount of fat to regulate ideal temperature. If the temperature falls beyond a limit, it can result in hypothermia.This condition does not come alone and brings several other problems, including low blood sugar and breathing troubles. The baby’s body tends to use all energy from breastfeeding to staying warm, and thus it does not help to grow. This is the prime reason, why preterm babies are kept in an incubator, until they can deal with the external environment on their own.

Premature Baby - ILS Hospitals

Check out 4 more short term complication of preterm birth here.