Invasive, Non-Invasive and Interventional Cardiology – How Are They Different?

The heart is one of the most crucial organs of our body. Its function is vital for our functionality and survival. The count of heart diseases is increasing at a steady rate. While some conditions like palpitation can be addressed with oral medication, some conditions like heart attack qualify as a cardiac emergency. Cardiology is the special branch of medicine that deals with diagnosis, treatment, and care for heart ailments.

Today, we will brief 3 major branches of cardiology, namely- invasive, non-invasive and interventional cardiology. All three of them have the ultimate same goal- evaluate the heart’s structure and functions and diagnose a heart condition when encountered.

1. Invasive Cardiology

As the terminology clearly indicates, this branch deals with invasive approaches. It involves either open or laparoscopic incisional probes to trace the abnormalities of the heart. Two of the most common procedures are angioplasty and stenting. It aims to clear the blocked blood vessels through a surgical approach.

2. Non-Invasive Cardiology

Unlike the previous one, non-invasive cardiology carries out diagnosis and treatment without inserting any equipment inside the body. It includes procedures such as Holter monitor, ECG, Echocardiogram, MRI, CT scan etc. It uses imaging techniques to extract crucial information about the heart.

3. Interventional Cardiology

It involves an advanced technique to address cardiac issues. It is an advanced branch of cardiology and needs expert medical team along with advanced, high – end equipment and technology. It mostly uses a small tube-like catheter to rectify narrowed, blocked and damaged blood vessels. It includes procedures like Valvuloplasty, Percutaneous valve repair, Percutaneous coronary intervention (CPI), congenital heart defect correction etc.

Underlying, untreated or misdiagnosed medical conditions can actually end up the surface as a cardiac emergency unannounced. Thus, it is natural for a patient to wonder which cardiology procedure is ideal for them. However, it is not a matter of choice of the patient and can only be evaluated by an expert cardiologist. Thereby, it is not uncommon to find a patient simply complaining about a ‘racing heart’ might actually be referred to a specialist after the primary screening.

Most of the cardiological conditions are well addressed at ILS Hospitals. However, our expertise Interventional cardiology is unparallel. We address coronary artery diseases along with congenital heart diseases, heart valve diseases, and peripheral vascular diseases. For any cardiac check-up or emergency, contact us at

An Insight of Surgeries Carried Out in ILS Hospitals

In this era, we have advanced technology for most of the things around us. However, even the best medication cannot resolve every illness. Thankfully, we have surgical treatment to address, resolve and cure such illnesses. With the help of the state-of-the-art technology such as the laparoscopic surgery, the remedy is now most effective than ever. Today, we bring insights of surgeries that we carry out in the ILS Hospitals.

At ILS Hospitals, at least 50 percent of the operations we carry out are related to the gastrointestinal tract. Most of our patient had a history of chronic indigestion, constipation and another digestive issue for a significant period of time. Indeed, the occurrence of digestive complication is on a constant rise since the introduction and commercialization of the fast food industry. It is often associated along with general surgery, which involves invasive correction of soft tissue and solid organs.

Laparoscopic Surgery

The figure is shortly followed by gynaecologic and obstetrician surgeries. Apart from childbirth surgical procedure, women also seek a surgical cure and care for family planning, and other gynaecological conditions. We also provide treatment and care for women suffering miscarriage or carrying risk pregnancy.

We handle and address significant numbers of orthopaedic surgeries throughout the year. It includes both prescheduled procedures such as total and partial knee replacement, hip joint, etc and emergency procedures such as accidental injury or trauma. Our 24/7 ambulance and ICU contributes a lot towards saving these lives.

As compared to other multispecialty hospitals, we have significant numbers of ENT, dental and eye surgery in our hospitals. In fact, we had carried out a cochlear implant in ILS Agartala unit, one of the rare and leading surgeries carried out in northeast India.

laparoscopic surgery

Cardiac surgery is on a constant rise, not only in ILS Hospitals but at hospitals in every corner of the world. However, we specialize in handling both preschedules heart surgeries and emergency cardiac surgeries. Our patients receive enormous support and care from the expert doctors.

Apart from these, we handle an enormous amount of species in miscellaneous specialties. At ILS Hospitals, we also have several patients seeking a surgical cure for their various urological conditions. We have many patients who chose us for offering laparoscopic surgery for the same. We, at ILS Hospitals, being the pioneer of laparoscopic surgery, offer mostly keyhole operation to our patients. Needless to say, our skilled nurses and staffs stay on guard, round the clock. In case, you or your loved ones need any consultation or surgery, book an appointment with us and secure your health.

How Plastics Are Affecting Our Health

We all have plastic bags in our homes which in it has other plastic bags too, isn’t’ it?

This is a statement that is both funny and frightening. Keep in mind that these are the reusable plastics, that we decided to keep. So, can you imagine how much plastics have we thrown out there?

The excessive exposure of the plastics around us has adversely affected our health, more than ever in the recent years.

Let’s have a detailed analysis of the same.

Polythene or more commonly known as plastic was one of the most revolutionary inventions of all time. Being durable, lightweight, and inexpensive, plastics became the material for almost every domain, within an extremely short duration. In exchange for all these comforts, this non-biodegradable started claiming health and wellness of human, wildlife, and environment altogether.


The air that we breathe, the land that we live on and grow food, the water we drink, everything contains plastics. Sadly even our food chain is no longer devoid of the plastic traces in it. As a result, the overall health has begun to decade gradually. Directly or indirectly, it contributes towards health disorders and complications, but not limited to the metabolism, cardiovascular, respiratory and several forms of cancer.

According to leading gynaecologists, the rising statistics of couples unable to conceive naturally or suffering multiple miscarriages is often due to exposure to harmful elements released by plastics. Many chromosomal and congenital abnormality also arise either from the current or the successive generation. Moreover, impaired brain and neurological functions, cancer, cardiovascular system damage, adult-onset diabetes, early puberty, obesity, and resistance to chemotherapy have also been found prevalent in both men and women.


Many people do not realize the same as often the source remains discrete from plain sight. For instance, the traces of plastic can be also found in food and water, which is packed or stored in plastic containers. Moreover, the contamination of animal’s food (eg, goat, poultry, cow etc.) with plastic components also act as an entry for it in our food chains.

Sadly, solving this problem is quite challenging. The best way to start is by taking proper measure and seeking guidance from best hospitals, in case any health discomfort arises and persists.

The theme for this World Environment Day, 5th June 2018, is ‘Beat Plastic Pollution’. Since it is being hosted in India, let’s pledge to accomplish (4‘R’s) – Reduce, Reuse, Recycle and most importantly Replace. Stay away from plastic materials, and whenever possible, go for the substitutes.

Let’s try our best to save our planet!

6 Health Complications That Will Motivate You to Quit Smoking Now

How do you define a cigarette?

A pinch of tobacco wrapped in a roll, with fire on one side and a fool on the other side.

Work is stressful, for most of us, isn’t it? How often do you rely on your ‘so-called friend’ to relieve this never-ending stress? The answers will range from never, rarely, depends, often, to all the time.

The more your answer titles towards the right, the earlier and the deeper you are digging for your own grave.

Quit Smoking

Here we present 6 health complications associated with smoking that will motivate you to quit smoking –

1. Heart and Lungs diseases

Our lungs are capable of filtering the air and supplying oxygen to the bloodstream. However, over the years of smoking, both lungs and heart begin to perform inefficiently and as a result, the person develops several types of cardiovascular and respiratory conditions.

2. Diabetes Type 2

The direct impact of smoking on-setting diabetes is still a matter of conflict among research scholars, but it certainly has been found that prolonged smoking increases the complications associated with diabetes type 2. Several patients, who also happens to be chain smokers, often visits diabetes clinic to address a common complication of loss of sensation in feet/legs.

3. Reproductive Health

Let it be men or women, prolonged smoking can affect their reproductive health. As per leading gynaecologists, for women, it can lead to ectopic pregnancy and a lower rate of natural conception. Whereas, in case of men, it can lead to erectile dysfunction.

4. Poor Metabolism

The component nicotine makes people addictive of the same and as a result, many chain smokers suffer from several digestive and metabolic malfunctions. As a result, a person can either lose or gain significant body weight. People seeking liver treatment often turn out to be chain smokers.

5. Oral and Throat

Holding the cigarette between the teeth, in a long run leads to misalignment of teeth along with severe gum diseases. As per ENT specialists, several kinds of mouth/throat ulcers and cancer is a result of smoking too.

6. Bone Decay

Prolonged smoking leads to a much faster rate of bone decay as compared to non-smokers. It is often closely followed by severe orthopaedic complications and rheumatoid arthritis as well.

Despite the frightening consequences of smoking, the silver lining is the fact that putting down smoking can help significantly in damage control.

World No Tobacco Day

On this World No Tobacco Day, on 31st May 2018, ILS Hospitals encourages every smoker to quit smoking. Not only it affects your own health but it also causes damage to your family, friends, and colleagues, who eventually becomes passive smokers, over the years.

Abnormal Heartbeat: What Is It And What Consequences Does It Have?

Skipping a heartbeat or racing of the heart is a very routine event in literature and usually, leads towards a happy ending. But in reality an abnormal heartbeat, if too fast to too slow, is not normal and particularly, its repeated occurrence of the same happens without a medical review, things might be just opposite of a happy ending. That is why any irregularities of the heart beat should be considered as a cardiac emergency and medical opinion and care must be sought.

Having a cardiac arrhythmia or more commonly known as irregular heartbeats and cardiac dysrhythmia is a cluster of medical conditions in which the individual experience irregular heartbeat. The normal heartbeat is calculated in terms of a number of beats in a minute. The normal range between 70 to 85 and it varies between genders. A heartbeat of 70 to 72 beats for men and 78 to 82 for women is considered as ideal.  However, it does not alarm any major cardiac abnormality as long as the heartbeat ranges from 60 to 100.

Abnormal Heartbeat - ILS Hospitals

A cardiac arrhythmia is of two types, either due to being too slow or too fast. Tachycardia is the condition when the heart beats too rapidly, more than 100 beats in a minute. Bradycardia is the condition when the heart beats too slowly, less than 60 beats in a minute.

Having any pre-existing heart disease, misbalance of electrolytes such as potassium or sodium in the bloodstream, an injury from a previous heart attack, change in cardiac muscle, are all the medical risk factor for having an irregular heartbeat. Being stressed, emotional or adrenalin rush might also cause an irregularity in the heartbeat but these factors are not likely to onset a cardiac arrhythmia.

Abnormal heart rate

Though several cardiac arrhythmias are not serious, and limits to symptoms of the same such as shortness of breath, passing out, lightheadedness, palpitation and chest pain for a small period of time. Some of them, however, can lead to complications like heart failure and stroke and can prove fatal, particularly the ones that occur repeatedly.

Thus, in case the patient is an aged individual or experiencing the same for more than a couple of time, he or she is advised to consider this as a cardiac emergency and is recommended to seek medical treatment on time. In order to keep track of the same, the use of heart monitor or pulse indicator is advised as well.

Cardiology – Harbor These 5 Healthy Habits for a Healthy Heart

Practice makes one perfect, but habit plays a crucial role in shaping our lives as well. What done once in a while, if becomes a habit, creates a series of complications. Today we will decode 5 habits that will change your heart forever. It will literally restore your heart to its former health and will keep cardiac emergencies at bay.

So, let’s begin the countdown

1. Take good care of your dental health

Though it may sound very irrelevant, but healthy teeth and gums will help you to have an overall healthy self, that includes your heart as well. It has been found that those having periodontal diseases are at more risk of having heart ailments too. The bacteria that causes gum diseases can travel through the bloodstream and causes complications to the heart as well.

To keep it at bay, brush and floss your teeth regularly.

dental health

2. Avoid trans-fat at all cost

It is often not possible (or even recommended) to completely eliminate the fat from the diet, but be sure to watch out for the hidden trans-fat in the everyday grocery list. Trans-fat can clog your arteries, which leads to rising of the bad cholesterol and lowering of the good cholesterol in the bloodstream.

Before buying snacks such as fries and crisps, read the label, ensure it has 0% trans-fat.

Avoid trans-fat

3. Have adequate sleep

One factor that often skips our mind is the quality and quantity of sleep we have. Insufficient sleep has been linked with the pressure build-up and inflammation in the heart. Special care should be practiced in case you are dealing with loud snoring and sleep apnea, as these might be an early sign for arrhythmias.

Have a sound sleep for six to eight hours a day to keep your body relaxed and disease free.

Have adequate sleep

4. Avert any second hand smoke

Though sharing has been encouraged since childhood to imprint healthy social and emotional impact, sharing second hand smoke can bring catastrophic results.  Even if you are not smoking directly, being present on the site or with the person can harm your heart directly by building up plaque in the bloodstream. It can lead to a cardiac emergency.

Avoid hanging out with people who are chain smokers and be firm about your resolution.

Avert any second hand smoke

5. Increase mobility while sitting or travelling for hours

Sitting idle for long hours at a stretch can be extremely harmful for your health. This is more likely to happen if you are either involved in sitting jobs or often travel to long distance for it. Immobilization for long hours can cause deep vein thrombosis blood clot in the blood vessels.

sitting or travelling for hours

Try to take a short break every couple of hours during the work and move around to mobilize your muscles.

Heart Attack vs. Stroke – What’s the Difference & How to Spot?

There are many diseases that give quality time for diagnosis and treatment. On the other hand, there are some diseases that need immediate medical attention. According to the doctors practicing in the ILS Hospitals, two of the most encountered medical emergencies are – heart attack and stroke. These diseases are very closely related, as both occur due to blocked arteries, but they are not the same thing.

Perceiving the symptoms in time is very crucial for saving a life.

So what actually happens during the two?

  1. Heart attack– When the coronary artery (the blood vessel that supplies blood to the heart) narrows to a limit when the blood flow gets restricted or blocked completely, it initiates a heart attack. The plague or cholesterol build up are the main causes for the same.Heart Attack - ILS Hospitals
  2. Stroke– When the carotid artery (the blood vessel that carries blood to the brain) bursts or gets blocked, it causes a stroke.
    It is mainly of two types.
    a. Ischemic stroke (the most encountered one) occurs when the blood supply to the brain cuts off due to blockage or plaque buildup.
    b. Hemorrhagic stroke, in which the blood vessel bursts and releases in the nearby tissues.

Stroke - ILS Hospitals

What are the symptoms?

The onset of the symptoms can be very rapid, usually without any prior warning. Some of their symptoms are similar while the rest is quite different. It varies significantly based on the severity of its occurrence, age, gender and the overall health condition.

Symptoms of Heart Attack

  1. Chest congestion or pressure that can spread to neck, jaws, back and arms
  2. Pain in the upper abdominal cavity
  3. Fatigue and nausea
  4. Excessive sweating

Symptoms of Heart Attack - ILS

Symptoms of Stroke

  1. Numb sensation on one side of the body (usually left side), especially face
  2. Difficulty seeing, speaking/ understanding
  3. Sharp headache
  4. Loss of balance and body coordination
  5. Confusion

Symptoms of Stroke - ILS

The Risk Factors

Since both the conditions are related to blocked arteries, they share several common risk factors such as-

  1. High blood pressure
  2. High cholesterol
  3. Family history
  4. Smoking
  5. Aging

High blood pressure is closely related to both of these diseases. The prime reason is persistent high blood pressure that exerts force on the blood vessel, which in turn strains them. This results in its rigidity and thus causes poor circulation, leading to heart attack and stroke.


The doctors operating in ILS Hospitals primarily gather family history and personal medical history as it plays a crucial role in it.

A possible stroke can be diagnosed by carrying out a CT scan, which can depict the area of poor blood circulation or rupture and bleeding. Depending upon the situation, an MRI can also be advised.

A possible heart attack can be diagnosed by an electrocardiogram, which evaluates the health of the heart muscles.

The 3 Most Common Congenital Diseases

According to Cardiologist, on an average, about 303,000 newborns die within 4 weeks post detection, as a result of congenital diseases. Congenital diseases are present due to some medical deformities during the time of birth. Congenital disease can cause long term disability, which may have adverse effects on survival and development. Several times it remains unclear regarding the exact cause of this congenital defects.

Here are the 3 most common congenital defects a baby may suffer from:

1. Congenital Heart Disorder

It is the medical condition in which there exists a problem in the heart structure since the time of birth. Its symptoms may either be absent or may vary from mild discomfort to life-threatening condition such as heart failure. It can be distinguished by presence of bluish skin, low birth weight and fatigue.

Congenital Heart Disorder

The exact cause for congenital heart disease often remains unknown. Mother’s infected with Rubella during the period of pregnancy may act as a contributing factor for the same. Additional factors during pregnancy such as consumption of alcohol or tobacco or some specific medication may also play a significant role for the same.

2. Down Syndrome

This medical condition is also called Trisomy 21, in which a third copy of chromosome number 21 present alters the genetic makeup. It affects adversely on the physical growth and mental development. It can be characterized by observing delayed growth and moderate intellectual disabilities. A grown up individual suffering from down syndrome possess an average IQ of 50, which is equivalent to mental age of a child of eight years old.

Down Syndrome

The possibility of having down-syndrome is associated with the mother’s age. The risk of suffering from it is about 3 percent for pregnant woman with age more than 45, this risk minimizes to 0.1 percent in case the woman is 20 years

3. Cleft lip and Cleft palate

Also called orofacial cleft, this is a class of defects that include either cleft lip, cleft palate or both. In a cleft lip, an opening may stretch till nose. It may be present either on one side, both sides or in the middle. In a cleft palate, an opening exist between the roof of mouth and nose. These conditions arise when joining of tissues does not occur effectively.

Cleft lip and Cleft palate

According to ENT Specialists of ILS Hospitals, if this condition is left untreated, it can interfere with feeding, speech and hearing function. It also causes persistent ear infection. Consumption of alcohol or tobacco or even obesity during pregnancy has been associated with this group of diseases.

Coronary Artery Diseases: What, Where And How

Every year, 29th September is celebrated as World Heart Day. It aims to increase awareness amongst the people regarding heart diseases and its treatment.

Heart diseases in India is becoming epidemic. As per latest statistics, near about 30 million heart patients reside in India and about two lakh cardiovascular surgeries in India takes place every year. Out of 30 millions, 14 millions lives in urban areas, whereas rest 16 million lives in rural area. This outburst of cardiovascular diseases are due to several reasons, such as aging, food habit and lifestyle.

cardiac emergency kolkata

There are several types of cardiovascular diseases in and the most common one is coronary artery diseases it is also called ischemic heart diseases. This occurs due to blockage in blood vessels build up by plaque. These are a group of conditions which results in anigma (both stable and unstable), heart attack and sudden cardiac death.

How does it occur?

There are mainly two kinds of blood vessels, veins carry oxygenated blood from body to heart and arteries which carry oxygenated blood from heart to body. The arteries are thinner in cross section and elastic and smooth in nature. After developing plagues on the lining of arteries, the blood flow gets disrupted. Also, it make the inner surface sticky and attracts lipoproteins, inflammatory cells and calcium etc. Altogether they mix and sticks to the blood vessels making it thinner by growing inward.


Ultimately new blood vessels may develop around the blockage to supply the blood to heart. This process may get hampered by hyper-stress or vigorous exercise. In case the plaque bursts, and the blood clot block the blood supply of heart, the patient suffers heart attack. If the blood vessel to brain is blocked then the patient suffers ischemic stroke. If a blood vessel bursts within the brain, the patient suffers hemorrhagic stroke.

What are the Symptoms?

The most common symptoms are heartburn, loss of consciousness, heaviness, irregular heartbeat, weakness, nausea, sweating, chest discomfort, which may extend up to other body parts such as neck, jaw, shoulder and back. The severity of symptoms may increase during exercise or emotional stress.

Cardiac Emergency Kolkata

How it can be Diagnosed?

It can be diagnosed by using ECG (Electrocardiogram), EKG (Echocardiogram), CT scans and several others. These procedure enables the doctor to evaluate the condition of the patient and provide suitable cardiovascular surgeries in India.

cardiac emergency kolkata

What Preventive measures to take?

One can reduce the chances of being susceptible to coronary artery diseases by following a healthy diet combined with regular exercise and not consuming any toxic substance such as cigarette and alcohol. In certain cases, medication for high blood pressure and cholesterol may be prescribed by the doctor.

Cardiac Emergency Kolkata

5 Most Common Heart Diseases Explained by Cardiologists in Kolkata

The graph of people suffering from heart diseases is growing everyday. The number of lives being claimed by cardiovascular diseases are more than all forms of cancer combined. The symptoms of cardiovascular diseases vary from person to person and mostly gets ignored by several people.

Continue reading 5 Most Common Heart Diseases Explained by Cardiologists in Kolkata