Prostate Cancer: Early Detection For Patients At Higher Risk
Prostate cancer can only be detected in its early stage during screening. Other than that, there is no visible symptom until the disease reaches the advanced stage.
In the early stages, the chances of treatment are high, but as the disease advances, the chances of treatment also decrease.
So, even if there are no symptoms, you must always consult with the best urologist in Kolkata after the age of 40. This would help to take enough precautionary measures in case of the onset of prostate cancer.
Let’s get to know more about the disease so that you can receive the treatment at the right time.
What is Prostate cancer?
The prostate is a male gland that is responsible for producing seminal fluid. The sole purpose of the seminal fluid is to transport and nourish the sperm. It can get affected by either benign or malignant cancer.
Prostate cancer is a very common cancer found among males in their 40s. Most prostate cancer tends to remain confined within the gland, whereas others spread slowly and become aggressive.
Signs and Symptoms of Prostate cancer
There are absolutely no symptoms identifiable at the early stage. However, when the disease advances, there are certain signs, such as:
- Blood in urine
- Bone pain
- Blood in semen
- Loss of weight
- Erectile dysfunction
- Trouble urinatin
Thus, it becomes quite necessary to consult with the best urologist in Kolkata before it is too late.
Risk factors leading to Prostate cancer
There are many risk factors that, when combined, lead to the development of prostate cancer. Generally, screening is done in males above the age of 40 to understand the development of cancer. So, the basic questions that you need to ask are:
- Does any of your family members have prostate, ovary, colon, or pancreatic cancer?
- Does your family have a history of gene mutation?
- How old are you, and when should you start screening for prostate cancer?
Other than this, the risk of prostate cancer prevails among men:
- Individuals who are above 65 years old.
- Have an ancestry of African American men and Caribbean men.
- Share the family gene of cancer.
- Obesity can lead to cancer.
How is prostate cancer screening done?
The golden standard test applied for prostate cancer screening is PSA, Prostate Specific Antigen Test. With this, the level of Prostate Specific antigen in the blood is measured. PSA is actually a protein that is produced by the prostate cells, and the amount increases during prostate cancer. Because a cancerous cell tends to produce more PSA. So, there is a spike of PSA in the blood.
This is the first test that every medical specialist would recommend. Thus, any temporary increase in the PSA level would help them take precautionary steps. The increase in PSA can even be due to an infection, but monitoring the level and keeping it within the normal range can prevent the chances of cancer.
What if the PSA test is found to be high?
If the PSA result is found to be high, then the test is again repeated after a couple of weeks. This helps confirm that you have prostate cancer to avoid fluctuations. Further, it is always advised to carry out the test in the same laboratory as the previous one to avoid confusion.
Other tests to detect prostate cancer
After the PSA screening test, your doctor may ask you to go through a certain follow-up test or a biopsy. There are many supplementary tests that are considered, such as the Digital Rectal Exam (DRE), Free PSA test, PSA velocity or the rate of rising, PSA density, and PSA-based markers.
Other than this, the urinary PCA3 marker is also mandatory. The doctor may also ask you to go through an MRI, too. Other than a screening routine, there are certain tests that you have to undergo, such as cancer-specific blood and urine-based tests.
Why is the Digital Rectal Exam (DRE) considered to be important?
A Digital Rectal Exam is considered to be the baseline test where the doctor examines the prostate physically, whether it has changed its shape, become irregular, or enlarged. If there are any subsequent changes or if it has become bigger compared to the previous examination, it is definitely a red flag.
Do you need to go through both PSA and DRE?
Neither the PSA test (Prostate Specific Antigen Test) nor the DRE test (Digital Rectal Exam Test) can provide your 100% accurate result. There are chances of false positive and false negative results.
False positive results can lead to a biopsy even when the person does not have cancer. On the other hand, false negatives can provide a false sense of relaxation that they don’t have any cancer. Thus, both tests are quite essential to reach the conclusion.
Can Prostate cancer be cured?
Early diagnosis and detection can help to restrict cancer to a certain extent. Other than this, prostate cancer can also grow slowly and affect men who are in their 60s. So, even if the cancer is detected in its early stage, it may have little scope of treatment to be done due to age and other factors.
What are the complications associated with treatment?
Cancer treatment can also have serious side effects that affect the prostate gland. It can lead to a lack of urine control which is incontinence, and also lead to erection problems. Also, the patient may face metastasizing. Here cancer can spread to nearby organs, including the bladder, and get into the lymphatic system, affecting the bone and other organs. Thus, it makes the treatment difficult, and also the chances of getting cured also reduce subsequently.
According to the best urologist in Kolkata, you can follow certain practices to prevent the spread or occurrence of prostate cancer, such as:
- Try to eat healthily and choose a diet that consists of fruits and vegetables.
- Instead of depending on vitamin and mineral supplements, opt for food that can provide proper nourishment, including vitamins and minerals.
- Try to include regular exercise as it contributes towards overall health.
- Maintain proper weight and try to reduce the extra calories. Follow the BMI chart for a more specific result.
- Consult with a doctor about the increase of prostate cancer and ask for supplements that can reduce its developing chances.
Irrespective of the risk factors, you should talk to your doctor as immediately as you can. Only detection of prostate cancer, at the right time, can prevent the risk, and cancer can be seized at its early stage. At ILS Hospitals, you get the facility of advanced treatment and cancer screening. So, consult with a medical specialist before the threat prevails.
What Happens During Urodynamics?
Ageing can be fun, but it brings new challenges such as wrinkles, lack of energy and unwillingness to participate in activities. Along with this, there are also functional changes within the body. The most-reported problem is – You might notice that even sneezing can result in involuntary leakage of urine or peeing. These circumstances can be embarrassing, but the good news is that it is treatable. The best urologist in Kolkata suggests Urodynamic testing to diagnose incontinence in urine passage. This test also detects additional urinary tract symptoms, such as infection and blockage, irrespective of male and female.
So, if your prescription reads urodynamic tests, here’s what you should be prepared for:
What do the urodynamic tests measure?
The most basic purpose of urodynamic tests is to understand the condition of the urinary system, which includes – the bladder, urethra, urine storage, sphincters and presence of infections.
The test reports give a clear idea about:
- Nerve and muscle functions are associated with the urinary system.
- Pressure building within and around the urinary bladder.
- Urinary flow rates and factors related to urinary discharge.
When does a urologist prescribe urodynamic tests?
- If there is urine leakage while doing any random activities
- Following incontinence in urine flow
- Sudden urges to urinate
- Unable to empty a full bladder
- Frequent urination (bladder remains full after peeing)
- Pain urination with a burning sensation
- Urinary tract infections
What are the primary urodynamic tests?
Urodynamic tests include a combination of tests that are prescribed based on the reported symptoms, such as –
This test helps to understand and measure the leak point pressure. Catheters are used to measure the pressure inside the bladder to know how much urine it can hold. It also determines the elasticity, and pressure flow and detects abnormal contractions.
In this test, electrode patches are placed near the urethra and rectum to record the electrical activity of the muscles and nerves associated with the sphincters and bladder.
You have to have a full bladder to proceed with this test. You need to urinate into special equipment that automatically measures the amount and flow rate. This creates a graph that notifies about any changes and detects blockage.
Postvoid residual measurement
This is measured with ultrasound equipment to understand the amount of urine left in your bladder after you empty it.
Video urodynamic tests
It is a combination of cystometry, uroflowmetry, and X-ray cystography urinary tests. This helps to determine the proper bladder and urethral function and shows the changes in size and shape of your bladder.
How can you prepare for a urodynamic test?
Urodynamic tests do not require any particular preparation routine. You might be asked to change certain fluid intake habits or restrictions on certain medications until the test is complete.
But, these are just for a few hours before the examination. However, few particular tests require you to keep your bladder full before you come for examination. Or, you might be instructed to drink fluid after arriving at the diagnostic centre— Consult with the best urologist in Kolkata prior to the test.
Is it painful? Are there any risks?
The level of discomfort tends to vary from person to person and lasts for a few hours. Some women reported a slight burning sensation after the test, while others didn’t. You may feel discomfort while peeing after the test.
So, you are advised to stay hydrated, drink enough water, use a warm damp cloth to dab at the urethral opening to get relief and avoid caffeine for the next 24 hours. Often, prophylactic antibiotics are prescribed to avoid the chances of UTIs.
There is no risk, but if the level of irritation increases, you must consult with the renowned urologist in Kolkata at ILS Hospitals for a follow-up.