Blood-Related Diseases – Types And Treatment At a Glance

No matter how healthily we thrive to lead our life, falling sick is an inevitable part of life. There are various kinds of illnesses out there, affecting certain organs, organ system, muscle or bones. Today, we are going to discuss blood-related diseases, its types, diagnosis, and treatment. Let’s understand these aspects, one by one.

Blood-related diseases come under a specialty called the hematology. The scope of hematology is enormous and there is a wide range of condition affecting some or the other component of blood. Most of them occur due to a certain mutation in the blood, while many others onset due to certain illnesses, certain medication, unhealthy diet, and lifestyle, over a prolonged period of time. Blood disorders, if left untreated, adversely affects the ability to form effectively. The particular diseases are named accordingly as follows.

1. Red Blood Corpuscles (RBC)

It carries oxygen to tissues. Diseases that involve a decrease in its components is called anemia while the increase in its components is called erythrocytosis.

Some common diseases involving RBC are Anaemia, Pernicious Anaemia, Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia, Sickle cell anaemia, Polycythaemia Vera, Malaria, Thalassemia and others.

Diagnosis of diseases related to the RBC can be diagnosed with-

  • Group of blood tests
  • Review personal medical history
  • Review family medical history
  • Physical exams
  • Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy

Its treatment includes a dietary change, blood transfusion, medication for production of are RBC and surgery.

2. White Blood Corpuscles (WBC)

It fights infection in the body. Diseases that involve a decrease in its components is called leukopenia while increasing in its components is called leukocytosis.

Some common diseases involving WBC are- Lymphoma, Leukaemia, Multiple myelomas, Myelodysplastic syndrome, etc.

Diagnosis of diseases related to the WBC can be diagnosed with-

  • Blood tests and urine tests
  • Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy
  • Lumbar puncture (spinal tap)
  • X-ray, CT, PET scans, MRI, and ultrasound

Its treatment needs monitoring to evaluate the most suitable approach. It may include (either one or more) chemotherapy, surgery, drug therapy, radiotherapy, stell cell transplant, etc.

3. Blood Platelets

It helps in the blood clotting mechanism. Diseases that involves a decrease in its components is called thrombocytopenia while increasing in its components is called thrombocythemia or thrombocytosis.

Some common diseases involving blood platelets are Thrombocytopenia, Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, Essential thrombocytosis.

Diagnosis of diseases related to the platelets can be diagnosed with-

  • Group of blood tests
  • Review personal medical history
  • Review family medical history
  • Physical exams

Its treatment includes several replacement therapies for each individual, with a specific clotting agent for the specific factor that they lack. It might also include blood transfusion, immunoglobulins, and surgery in certain cases.

ILS Hospitals, one of the best hospitals in the region, with our expert hematologists are all set to address various conditions that arise due to blood disorders. In case you are suffering from any of the above-mentioned illness, don’t waste precious moments and seek quality treatment and care at your earliest convenience to address them effectively.

Scope of Haematology

Blood transfusing is often a very common solution to treat several side effect of any illness or as a compensation for blood loss from a treatment or surgery. But there are several illnesses that originate in the blood itself. Several hospital offer screening and treatment of the same. Haematology is the umbrella term for the branch that deals with diagnosis, prevention, treatment and care of diseases related to blood. The term is originated from Greek words ‘haima’ implying blood, and ‘logy’ implying to study.

These diseases can originate or affect any of the blood components such as blood cells, bone marrow, blood protein, blood vessels, platelets, coagulation, and spleen. Let’s understand what are the components of blood is and medical conditions surface under each of the components

The main components of blood as are as follows:

  1. RBC or Red Blood Cells – it carries oxygen to tissues
  2. WBC or White Blood Cells – it fights infections
  3. Platelets – it helps in blood clotting
  4. Plasma – it reserves protein and performs several other functions


Blood diseases that affect RBC are:

a. Anaemia – the body has a low level of RBC

b. Pernicious Anaemia (B12 deficiency) – prohibits the body to absorb B12 from the diet.

c. Aplastic anaemia – the body does not produce adequate blood cells, mainly RBC

d. Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia – the body’s overactive immune system destroys its own RBC

e. Sickle cell anaemia – a genetic disease that makes the blood cell crumple into sickle shape

f. Polycythaemia Vera – the body produces too many blood cells that may cause blood clot

g. Malaria – an infection triggered by a parasite that enters the bloodstream through a vector (mosquito’s bite) that makes RBC burst.

h. Thalassemia – a genetic disease with features of severe anaemia, that often need a regular blood transfusion to survive.
Click here to learn more about Thalassemia.

Blood diseases that affect WBC are:

a. Lymphoma – a type of malignant blood cancer originating in the lymph system.

b. Leukaemia – another type of blood cancer originating in WBC.

c. Multiple myelomas – yet another type of blood cancer which affects the white blood plasma.

d. Myelodysplastic syndrome – a group of blood cancer that affects the bone marrow.

Blood diseases that affect platelets are:

a. Thrombocytopenia – the presence of low level of platelets in blood

b. Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura – onset of the above illness due to unknown cause

c. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia – onset of the above illness due to the reaction against heparin

d. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura – a low platelet count due to the blood clot in blood vessels

e. Essential thrombocytosis (primary thrombocythemia) – the body produces excessive platelets causing a clot and/or bleeding.

Blood diseases that affect plasma are:

a. Haemophilia – a genetically inducing protein deficiency that causes severe blood clot

b. Von Will brand disease – a form of haemophilia that might result in the excessive blood due to an injury or surgery

c. Hypercoagulable state (hypercoagulable state) – a condition that often results in blood clot and needs blood thinner on a regular basis

Deep venous thrombosis – having a blood clot in the deep vein of the leg that can even travel to lung or heart.

Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) – a condition that causes multiple tiny clots throughout the body, simultaneously.

Most of these illnesses can be treated effectively if diagnosed on time.