Tuberculosis: Types, Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis And Treatment

Tuberculosis is a communicable disease caused by the bacteria, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacteria mostly affect the lungs (Pulmonary Tuberculosis) but can spread to other parts of the body, kidney, spine, brain, liver and so on.

Today, ILS Hospitals one of the best hospital in Kolkata and Agartala will give you detailed information regarding Tuberculosis.


The two main types of Tuberculosis are as follows:

1. Latent Tuberculosis:

It is a non-infectious, symptomless TB infection that can later progress into active TB. If you have latent TB you will require treatment to prevent it from becoming an active one.

2. Active Tuberculosis:

As the name suggests, it is an active and contagious TB infection that causes various symptoms in the patient.

Signs & Symptoms

The signs and symptoms of active TB infection are as follows:

  • Chest pain

  • Shortness of breath

  • Cough that lasts for more than 2 weeks

  • Weakness or Tiredness

  • Loss of appetite or Decreased appetite

  • Fever and Chills

  • Night sweats

  • Rapid weight loss

  • Lymph nodes or Swollen glands (mostly at the sides and base of the neck)

  • Haemoptysis or Coughing up blood.


Young children and people with weak immune system are at a higher risk of getting infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The causes of Tuberculosis are as follows:

  • Weak immune system

  • Breathing in the air infected by the person with TB infection

  • Chronic diseases, like diabetes and kidney diseases

  • HIV

  • Malnutrition

  • Smoking


The diagnostic tests involved with Tuberculosis are as mentioned below:

  • TB Blood test

  • TB Skin test, in which the laboratory technician injects a small amount of PPD tuberculin into the lower arm to check for swelling after two to three days

  • Sputum test

  • Chest X-ray, the most reliable diagnostic method


The treatment depends on whether you have active or latent TB.

1. Latent TB:

The main goal is to prevent the bacteria from becoming an active one. For that, you’ll be prescribed antibiotics as your TB treatment.

2. Active TB:

Drugs and medications for several months are recommended for treating active TB.

People diagnosed with Tuberculosis should complete their entire medication course to prevent TB bacteria from becoming drug-resistant.

If you are suspecting any of this symptoms, get an accurate diagnosis and complete treatment for Tuberculosis from ILS Hospitals one of the best hospital in Kolkata, Howrah and Agartala.