Kidney Stones – Various Types of Kidney Stones

The Kidneys play a vital function in the body as it purifies the blood and creates urine. Kidney stones are hard particles accumulated over time. According to doctors, there are mainly four types of kidney stones. Let’s understand each of these in details.

Calcium stones- Most of the kidney stones are made up of calcium component, particularly the calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate along with traces of other minerals. Presence of high level of oxalate also contributes towards the formation of calcium kidney stones. Any episode of hyperparathyroidism elevates the risk of developing calcium stones in the future.

Calcium Kidney Stones

Use of certain medication may prevent calcium kidney stones.

Struvite stones– Some of the kidney stones are made up of struvite. It can occur in both kidney and urinary tract. If it’s left untreated for a long time, it grows larger in size, which is also known as staghorn calculi. Apart from causing kidney stones, it can also lead to urinary tract infection.

struvite kidney stone

As it can get bigger in size with time due to accumulate, it is considered as a serious health crisis. It can also cause infection. The medical treatment includes antibiotics; and if nothing significantly changes for better, then it has to be removed by surgical intervention. Women are more susceptible to develop a UTI and struvite stones as compared to men.

Uric acid stones- Some kidney stones are comprised of uric acid. Uric acid is a waste product produced by the body. Usually it passes through the body before eliminating as waste, but if this passage gets interrupted, then it accumulates to form stones.

Uric Acid Kidney Stone

Usually certain medications are used to dissolve these stones to prevent its further formation. People who are more likely to suffer from uric acid kidney stones are as follows-

  1. Having low urine as output
  2. Consuming a diet rich in animal protein
  3. Significant increase in alcohol consumption
  4. Medical conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease and Gout

Cysteine stones- Less common type of kidney stones are comprised of cysteine. It is a chemical substance present in urine in traces. But the individuals who possess a high concentration of cysteine in the urine are likely to develop this kind of kidney stone in the future.

cysteine kidney stone

Certain medicines can be used to prevent it from occurring, in case it has already been formed, use of medication may dissolve it. However, if it causes blockage in the urinary tract, it has to be removed by surgery.