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Knee Problems That Require Replacement Surgeries

Long walks during some trip or an exceptionally busy day are certain to cause some discomfort in the skeletal system. Its maximum impact can be seen on the lower extremities, namely the knee and heel joints. This kind of pain and discomfort becomes inevitable during old age and in case of accident or illness that has affected the Musco-skeletal system. In fact, the number of patients seeking ortho and joint replacement surgeries these days are alarmingly high. However, there are several individuals who are dealing with such difficulties every day without being aware of the fact that most of the times it can be resolved using advance ortho replacement surgery.

Today, we are listing some knee problem that might require ortho replacement surgery, which can help improve such discomforts.

1. Knee Osteoarthritis

This illness is characterized by decaying of bone density alarmingly. As a result, it starts to make the bone structure much fragile and leads to pain and discomfort. It affects everyday activities like climbing stairs, bending, walking and sometimes even sitting and getting up. For such patients, knee replacement is a good treatment option, but along with the surgery, the patients need to modify their diet and lifestyle a little as well. This aims to strengthen the bones and mitigate the risks of bone fracture in the future.

2. Knee Effusion

Synovial fluid is a natural, thick lubricant present in the cavities of the joint. It eases movement in that region, nourishes the cartilage along with protecting and supporting the knee joints. When this fluid fails to perform its function, it leads to knee inflammation, pain, and other discomforts. It might require extensive treatment to ensure complete care for the same including surgery.

3. Accidental Trauma To Knee

Any accident, let it be a small fracture or major clash, can affect the skeletal system. It is crucial to seek treatment if any persistent discomfort is noted. In case the accidental trauma is causing some major issue, particularly in the knee joint, the doctor might advise knee replacement surely, but only after confirming the same using imaging diagnostic screenings. It is crucial to seek treatment on time, as untreated discomfort can cause some long term damage as well.

4. Bowing In Or Out

Any Musco-skeletal disease such as bowing in or out might require knee replacement surgery as well. Whether it is a birth defect or has occurred over time, it is crucial to stop suffering and evaluate your treatment options to correct it permanently.

5. Knee Inflammation

Knee inflammation is characterized by stiffness of the knee joint due to inflammation in the region. It causes pain, immobility, and discomfort. It can be resolved with mild mediation, if the inflammation is on the skin, typically over the joint. But it is due to something that is happening internally, often the knee replacement surgery might be considered.

Knee joint pain can simply on set over the course of older age. Knee replacement surgery can be advised when the knee pain seems to be an issue due to many other causes as well. This is particularly true if the knee pain does not resolve with medication and starts interfering with everyday work and activities. It is crucial to try to find out the exact cause and treatment of the knee pain.

In case, you are dealing with any of this, it’s time to consider getting an ortho and joint replacement surgery. Remember, the sooner you get it treated, the better the result it has.

GERD – A Brief Introduction

You surely must have felt acidity burps from time to time. It happens due to the backflow of the stomach acid into the digestive tract. It is not uncommon for people to experience, once in a while as it is quite natural and needs no treatment to resolve it. But when it becomes chronic, it’s medically termed as GERD. It an acronym for gastroesophageal reflux disease. It is crucial to seek treatment for the same form an expert gastroenterologist on time to mitigate the risk of having any complications arising from it. Let’s have a look at it, in brief.

What is GERD?

It is a digestive disease that affects the muscle of the lower portion of the esophagus that leads towards the stomach. Under normal condition, the Lowest Esophageal Sphincter (LES) connects the esophagus to the stomach and passes the food forwards. In the case of GERD, this LES is either very weak or function abnormally, causing the backflow.

It pushes the contents of the stomach towards the upper esophagus. It can lead to persistent heartburn and acid indigestion, if left untreated.

What are the Symptoms of GERD?

The particular symptoms might vary from person to person, but some of the most common symptoms are as follows-

  • Heartburn, that is the presence of burning sensation in the chest (which might worsen at night or after meals)
  • Difficulty swallowing, even if you are intaking easily palatable food
  • Chest pain, which is otherwise unexplainable
  • Chronic cough or presence of cough at the back of the mouth,
  • Regurgitation of sour liquid in the mouth
  • The sensation of a lump in the throat
  • On setting of asthma, or worsening of asthma
  • Disrupted sleep cycle, persistently

Presence of 3 or more of these symptoms should be checked by gastroenterologist to see if it is due to GERD.

Risk Factors of GERD

Though anyone gets diagnosed with GERD, there are certain risk factors associated with it. Risk factors are any aspect that enhances the chances of any disease. Some of the most common risk factors for GERD are as follows.

  • Weakened lower esophageal sphincter
  • Obesity or prolonged overweight
  • Pregnancy
  • Hiatal hernia (a bulge protruding from the stomach into diaphragm)
  • Routinely staying hungry for long

There are certainly other factors that aggravate the GRED. These include

  • Chain smoking, particularly over a longer period
  • Eating much larger meals (which leads to more secretion of digestive enzymes)
  • Eating very late at night
  • Persistently taking certain medications like aspirin
  • Drinking certain beverages, like alcohol, coffee or other caffeine-loaded drinks
  • Eating a certain kind of food, like highly processed, or fried food.

If you have 3 or more of the above-mentioned risk factors, you should watch out for the symptoms, in case they ever happen.

What is the best Treatment for GERD?

The everyday discomfort of GERD can be managed effectively with over the counter drugs and lifestyle change. However, in case hiatal hernia is the reason for the GERD, hernia surgery is needed to resolve the hernia, which also helps to resolve GERD.

5 Most Common Neurological Disorders You Should Know

Neurological diseases are disorders of the central and peripheral nervous system. It includes the organs, namely, the brain, spinal cord, and autonomic nervous system, along with cranial and peripheral nerves. It can also include nerve roots, neuromuscular junction, and muscles in these regions. It requires extensive diagnosis and treatment from specialist neurologists.

Neurological disorders include a wide range of illness such as Epilepsy, Severe Headache, Parkinson’s Disease, Spinal Cord Tumor, Brain Tumors, Memory Disorders, Multiple Sclerosis, Stroke and many more.

Today, let’s list a few of them in details.

1. Dementia and Alzheimer’s

It is the condition in which the person loses the ability to think or recollect things on a regular basis. It imparts the memory and often can be seen as an inevitable process of old age. It also includes symptoms like language difficulties and change in behavior. This can lead to agitation, delusions, aggression that may also lead to emotional outbursts. In severe cases, the person might need help even for day to day activities like bathing and eating, etc.

2. Parkinson’s Disease

It is a group of disorders that affect the motor senses in the body. It projects symptoms like trembling of body parts like hands, legs, arms, face, and jaw. It can also lead to stiffness of limbs and posture instability, imbalance and lack of coordination while making movements. Parkinson’s Disease can onset after the age of 50, but it might happen to people even before that, depending upon case to case. Unfortunately, it is not possible to treat them completely, but it can be managed effectively with proper medicines and support.

3. Epilepsy

This is yet another type of neurological disorder that is caused by abnormally high electrical impulse into the brain. As a result, the body starts to have seizures. Seizures can be characterized by involuntary and abnormal, vibration-like movement of the body. The magnitude of such seizure can vary from minor, mild to major, thus the range of its treatment varies as well. It requires proper training of the family members for minor episodes, along with the promptness to avail treatment.

4. Stroke

Stroke is a severe condition that occurs when the blood vessels supplying oxygenated blood to the brain, bursts or gets clogged in between. As the brain gets starved of the oxygen and nutrients, it can undergo some severe damage and thus considered as a medical emergency and need intensive care at the earliest. Even after the critical hours as passed, it is crucial to undergo follow up to evaluate the cause of stroke and ensure a full recovery.

5. Multiple Sclerosis

This neurological disease counts as an autoimmune disease which damages the outer layer of the nerve cells. While this outer, protective layer gets damaged, it leads to nerve impairment and in turn, leads to several other diseases. Its treatment options include medicines to suppress the immune system and manage the symptom.

For these and more neurological condition, seek appointment from our neurologists at ILS Hospitals on time.

FNAC – How It Works And Helps Towards Detection Of Breast Cancer

Breast cancer is a leading cause of death among women all around the globe. The scenario is equally frightening in Indian as well. The detection of malignancy in the breasts happens in later stages in India, and that is why breast cancer treatment is not very effective for many women.

Timely screening can confirm whether or not it is a case of cancer and thereby, the suitable treatment can be pursued, if needed.

Gynecologists recommend that every woman above the age of 30 should pay attention to any changes that occur in their breasts. Let’s understand about one such crucial screening, the FNAC, in details.

What is FNAC?

FNAC stands for Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology. It is a diagnostic screening that can detect the malignancy in the breast tumor. It can also be used to aspirate a known cyst, by pricking and collecting fluid. It is done to remove the cyst completely or to relieve discomfort and pain that is quite common for large cysts.

How FNAC is carried out?

FNAC uses a thin needle to penetrate the breast tissue to reach the site of the tumor. The exact position of the cyst or tumor can be detected using ultrasonography and the needles are guided accordingly. It collects some cells or fluid as a sample. The sample collected is then sent to the laboratory to investigate its nature further.

This usually does not require any anesthesia, because even if the procedure requires pricking the breast with needles, the pain is bearable. However, it might require the same, if a solid system is concerned, which required multiple aspirations, in a single screening procedure.

How FNAC helps to detect breast cancer?

Prescribing an FNAC does NOT mean the doctor suspects breast cancer. In fact, mostly it is the opposite. Usually, when they come across any lump during a physical exam and suspect it to be a harmless, benign tumor, the first thing they recommend is the ultrasound and closely followed by FNAC.

The reason for recommending USG as foremost screening is simply to get the exact location of the lump. The FNAC test simply rules out the possibility of cancer. In case, it shows hints of malignancy, a biopsy is then recommended, which confirm the presence and type of malignancy.

So, why does the gynaecologist, does not recommend biopsy in the first go itself? Well, simply because FNAC is less invasive than a biopsy. A biopsy requires proper anesthesia as is a little more severe and sort of unnecessary for benign tumors.

What happens after FNAC confirms the nature of the tumor?

Well, if it shows malignancy, which is quite rare, the gynecologist is likely to refer the patient to an oncologist for advanced breast cancer treatment. In case its benign tumors, it can either be aspired to relived discomfort or left intact in the place (unless it projects any more trouble in the future) or it can be removed by surgery anyway.

For more information, if required it is wise to get in touch with a gynaecologist and discuss the possibilities.

Geriatric Medicines – A Brief Introduction and Some Common Conditions

If your ginger tea does not help resolve your cold, you go to the general physician; if you encounter skin inflammation, you seek a dermatologist and so on, there are specialized doctors for every kind of illness. But where do you turn to, if you are looking for the best treatment for older people? Well, you look for geriatricians. It is not known among many people, that there is a different specialist for treatment and care for older people, known as geriatric medicines.

Let’s take a look at its introduction followed by some common conditions of old age.

What are Geriatric Medicines?

As mentioned in brief, a while ago, geriatric medicine is a specialization for older people. It aims to promote their health, prevent diseases, manage disabilities and offer quality care for them. This includes people older than the age of 60. However, it can be available even before that, in case the patient or the family feels the need.

Often it is prescribed by a doctor under whom currently the treatment is going on. It is done as often the normal treatment does not yield adequate progress on older patients as they have much slower recovery and their multiple health conditions complicate the recovery.

Now let’s have a look at some of the most common conditions faced by older people.

Sensory Impairment

Having impairment in old age is quite common, particularly for hearing and vision. Most older people have either one or both of them. But thankfully it can be treated effectively with correction glasses and hearing aids.

Urine Incontinence

It is probably the most common and more embarrassing problem faced by older people. Urine inconsistency has defined as the inability to control the urination and have frequent urination. As a result, people might leak urine before reaching the bathroom. It cannot be cured effectively as older age leads to muscle inflexibility that controls the urine flow, but it might be managed well with certain medical help and adult diapers.

Oral Health

Oral health is a common issue among people of any age, including older people. They gradually begin to lose natural teeth, apart from having a range of oral problems like bad breath, dry mouth, cavities, tooth decay and so on, overall it posses much difficulty to chew food properly. The good news is, they can be effectively managed with timely medicines and prosthetic teeth if needed.

Cognitive Health

Cognitive health refers to the ability of people to think, evaluate, remember and learn anything. With older age, people lose their cognitive ability. In fact, most of the older individual eventually loses cognitive functions. This affects their overall health in many ways. Its treatment is somewhat more challenging than the others as mentioned before.

These are some of the most common diseases faced by older people. Getting in touch with a geriatrician will help to manage more of the conditions effectively. However, apart from extensive treatment, cooperation from family and friends is also very crucial for their overall health and wellbeing.

5 Common Complications Faced By Pregnant Women

Carrying another life inside you is both a blessing as well as the most challenging task. Thankfully the expert gynecologist and obstetricians help you thoroughly for the same. In fact, maternity hospitals are all equipped to make this experience as comfortable and safe as possible. But there are certain complications that might make it difficult though. Here we present some complications that may arise during pregnancy.

1. Hypertension

It is also known as high blood pressure. It occurs when the blood flowing in the blood vessels exerts too much pressure. This happens when these vessels get narrowed due to some reason. This causes hindrance for the blood to reach the placenta (which provides oxygen and nutrition to the baby). This deprivation for long can cause a slower growth of the baby and can also uplift the chances of preterm labor.

2. Gestational Diabetes

It is a rather unique type of diabetes in which a pregnant woman, with no history of high blood sugar gets diagnosed with it. Even though most of the time gestational diabetes get resolves on its own, after childbirth, it uplifts the probability of several other complications during pregnancy and thus its constant treatment is required. Also, it makes the mother susceptible to diabetes in the future, so she should keep her sugar level in check.

3. Preeclampsia

It is a rather serious condition which has quite severe effects. Its causes are often unknown, but it can be a more likely scenario in case of the first pregnancy or in the case the mothers is obese or is older than 35, or carrying multiple babies or have suffered from the same condition in her previous pregnancy.

It is characterized by exceptionally high blood pressure and in case if it is left untreated it can cause organ damage.

4. Placenta Previa

As already discussed, placenta nourishes your baby before birth. The placenta is usually attached to the top of the uterus and in case of this complication, it slides down. It can cover the cervix (right on the birth canal) either partially or totally. Needless to say, it can cause a hindrance during childbirth and can make it strained labor for the mother and somewhat risky for the baby. It can be diagnosed accurately during a pre-natal scan. Extensive treatment under an expert obstetrician is crucial for such cases.

5. Severe Vomiting and Nausea

Morning sickness is quite common among expecting mother. It is characterized by feeling nausea and voting in the early morning, particularly during the first trimester. Its severe form is called hyperemesis gravidarum and it causes extreme nausea and vomiting along with weight loss, dehydration, fainting and loss of appetite that often need extensive treatment in some maternity hospital.

Good prenatal care is highly recommended for every pregnant woman along with timely medication and prenatal screening. It can ensure that any pregnancy-related complications can be addressed and treated effectively on time. Come at ILS Hospitals to have a safe pregnancy and childbirth ahead.

4 Common Gastrointestinal Diseases That You Should Be Aware Of

We all come across articles with catchy titles like ‘best food for weight loss’, ‘worst food during pregnancy’, and so on, isn’t it! Indeed the food we eat determines many health factors for us. However, sometimes the passage of food, the digestive tract, itself gets inflicted with many diseases. In fact, the number of gastrointestinal conditions is on a rise since the past few decades. Let’s take a look at some of the most common ones of them.

Gastrointestinal conditions are the diseases that originate in any or more of the organs of the GI tract and its accessory organs. It includes the esophagus, stomach, gallbladder, liver, pancreas small and large intestine, colon and rectum. A good Gastroenterologist can offer extensive treatment of the same.

Some of the most common GI conditions are as follows.

1. GERD (Gastroesophageal reflux disease)

Acidity, reflux and heartburn are some most commonly experienced symptoms related to digestion. GERD is the severe form of such acid reflux. It is characteristic by regular acid reflux, often with a sour or bitter taste in the mouth. GERD might be a result of underlying hiatal hernia (for which hernia treatment must be sought immediately) and moreover, untreated GERD can severely harm the esophagus, so it is advised to address it on time.

2. Gallstones

Gallstones is yet another most common GI condition. Gallstones are solidified, crystalline substance that occurs inside the gallbladder. Its size may vary from small granular to big golf ball sized. It causes tremendous pain and can be eased with medicines. However, it is crucial to note that gallstones are mostly impossible to cure with medicine, and it can only be treated permanently with gallstone operation.

3. Gastroenteritis

This is a pathogen infection of the GI tract, which can include, bacteria, virus and parasites. It brings multiple symptoms at once, such as vomiting, diarrhea, headache and also fever. Usually, it is known as common stomach flu. The mild flu can be managed easily with adequate rest, plenty of water and minerals and mild over-the-counter drugs. But it might need some medical treatment, if the symptoms persist for long, or if it triggers again and again. However, these are easily spread and measures should be taken to avoid the possibility.

4. Peptic Ulcers

Unhealthy diet, lifestyle and excessive use of certain medicines can deteriorate the inner membrane of the stomach and expose it to the digestive acids. This results in ulcers and causes several digestive complications, if left unresolved. It often cannot resolve on its own, as the ulcers stay exposed to the enzymes persistently. Thus, its timely treatment is quite important and so is making certain changes in the diet and lifestyle.

There are several other GI conditions as well which need to be treated effectively. At ILS Hospitals, we offer extensive diagnosis treatment for a wide range of GI conditions.

Risks Of Untreated Clinical Depression And Why You Should Seek Help In Time

We all have experienced depression from time to time and thankfully, we often are able to come out of it with our will and little help from friends and family. But the term clinical depression is something can that needs extensive medical treatment from an expert psychiatrist. Let’s check out the risks of the same if it is left untreated.

1. Suicide

The most feared risk of untreated depression is suicide. It includes having suicidal thought as well. Many individuals start looking for ways to end their life, or might also picture them carrying it out too. Though being involved in violence is somewhat rare, severely depressed individuals can cause harm to others as well, if they are provoked or evoked.

2. Self Injury

Several individuals engage in self-injury in order to cope with their depression. It includes hitting head on the walls or hard surfaces, burning, clawing, skinning, cutting or ingesting some toxic substance. In such cases, even when some individual is not actually considering suicide, these harmful activities can result in severe injury or even death, accidentally.

3. Addiction

It is not uncommon to find people drink or smoke or even take drugs to cope up with their depression. For clinical depression, this addiction becomes even worse. Such individuals try to subdue their consciousness with substance abuse. This, in turn, can bring many medical threats to them. In many cases, its overuse has been found to lead towards death and deterioration of health.

4. Poor Performance

As depression makes people drenched out of energy, make them unable to focus or even perform the capability, it is almost inevitable to find its result in everyday life. Let it be academic or workplace performance, the results often are too poor as compared to normal.

5. Reckless Behavior

Depression might make people let their guards down, as they are not certain they want a better tomorrow. These individuals might engage in action without considering their consequences. It includes reckless driving, doing dangerous recreational activities, etc.

6. Relationship Issues

Depression deteriorates personal relations the most. It causes rifts, fights, hopelessness in a relationship and affects their family’s mental health as well. For married people, it can lead to even separation or divorce. When such individuals also have children, it dis-balance their growth and emotional health drastically.

7. Poor Health

Depression leads to many health complications, some directly and some indirectly. For instance, insomnia and fatigue directly result from depression and long term depression can give rise to weight gain, high cholesterol and other complications.

Can Depression Be Cured With Timely Treatment

Thankfully, yes! Treatment for depression includes sessions with expert psychiatrists, group session, medicines and shock treatment in severe cases.

On behalf of ILS Hospitals, we would like every individual to evaluate their mental health once in a while, just like they do for their physical health. Remember, the depression is just a phase that can be overcome with help, modern medicines are more than capable of resolving it for good if it is availed at the right time.

A Brief Introduction About Cervical Cancer Vaccination

Cervical cancer is the second most common form of cancer in women in India, after breast cancer. Cervical cancer refers to the malignancy found in the cervix (the lowermost portion of the uterus) of the reproduction system in women. Though cervical cancer affects older women of age 50 or above the most, many gynecologists confirm that women with the same have been diagnosed in their early 30s as well. Let’s understand regarding many of its aspects in details along with cervical cancer vaccination.

Cervical cancer might project no symptoms at first, but the advanced stages often show some symptoms such as vaginal discharge with blood or strong smell, bleeding in postmenopausal women or during times other than on periods, pelvic pain and so on. Though these symptoms might indicate some mild infections as well, it is always wise to get it checked to rule out the possibility of cervical cancer.

Cervical cancer occurs due to Human Papillomavirus Infection (HPI). It can be prevented effectively with the HPV vaccine. It usually takes 2 to 3 shots to complete the dosage. It is usually advised for young girls of age group 9-15, but can also be recommended to women reaching until the age of 25 or even more. A thorough consultation is advised to consider the same with an expert gynecologist, in depth.

Cervical cancer vaccination is not fully effective for women above the age of 25, particularly if they are already sexually active (It is true for even the younger girls). The reason being, the vaccination loses its effectiveness as women grow older, and moreover being engaged in sex, might already have exposed them to the infection, makes will make the vaccine considerably. However, the HPV vaccine can help prevent many other diseases of the reproductive tract as well.

Cervical cancer vaccination offers protection malignancy in the cervical region. But as HPV virus also can cause cancer in the vulva and vagina, this vaccination protects the women against these as well along with genital warts.

However, there are other measures that can help with early detection of cervical cancer too. Pap smear is a screening that collects sample cells from the cervical cavity. It is then evaluated under a microscope. In case they exhibit any changes in their structure, it might be indicating cancer and thus, timely treatment options can be availed for it.

HPV vaccination is effective and safe. The only side effects that have been found in some cases are pain, swelling, and redness in the site of the injection. However, these are mild and temporary and overall, its advantages surpass the mild discomfort.

ILS Hospitals offers HPV vaccination to fight cervical cancer effectively. We urge parents of every young girl to seek consultation with an experienced gynecologist to consider HPV vaccination for their daughters to have a cervical cancer-free life ahead. For women who are older are also advised to take proper measure to mitigate the possibility of cervical cancer in their future.

8 Most Common Orthodontics Conditions To Watch Out For

‘A smile can often fix many difficult situations’. We are all familiar with this phrase. However, there are many threats that loom over this perfect smile of yours. Of course, the germs, cavity, and plaque built up deteriorate your dental health, but some misalignment can also hamper your perfect smile too.

Today, we are going to present some most common orthodontics conditions, but before that, we will explain what is orthodontics, in brief. Orthodontics is a special branch of dentistry that deals with fixing malalignments of teeth, whether it is due to defect or injury.

Crowding Of Teeth

It occurs when there is not enough room for all the teeth. This arises when the jaw is either underdeveloped or is just a little small as compared to the teeth. As a result, the teeth overlap one another and can cause some dental problem as it becomes tricky to clean them thoroughly.

Spaced Teeth

This is just the opposite of the previous condition. In this, the jaw is rather big as compared to the space needed by the teeth. It can cause food particles to stuck in between and also often happens to be unattractive to look.

Overbite

Usually, the upper plate is usually protruded over the lower one. However it became a problem, if this protrusion is too steep as compared to normal skeletal build, an orthodontic condition, we call it as an overbite. It causes difficulty in chewing in extreme cases.

Under-bite

This is just the opposite of the previous case. Under-bite refers to the arrangement when the lower jaw protrudes over the upper jaw. It affects the overall facial look and might add some difficulties in chewing.

Cross-bite

This is a combination of the previous 2 conditions. In this, some of the teeth are aligned as overbite while some are aligned as under-bite. It might give a rather unnatural look to the dental plate and might lead to some dental conditions.

Open Bite

In this condition, the teeth of the upper and lower jaws do not meet one another. It makes chewing a much difficult task, which often adds excessive pressure to the other teeth. It might happen due to persistent thumb suckling as a child.

Hypodontia

This is a case when one or more teeth naturally do not form and leads to extra spacing in the palate. If only a couple of teeth are missing, it can be easily fixed with braces, which spreads them out evenly.

Hyperdentia

This is just the opposite of the previous condition, in which there are one or more extra teeth than ideally supposed to be. If it does not cause any dental difficulty, It might be left untreated, but otherwise, it often needs to be surgically removed.

These conditions can be addressed effectively with the treatment from expert orthodontics. It might be okay to live with them if its severity is minor and posses no discomfit or trouble. However, in many cases, untreated orthodontics can lead to premature wearing of teeth and dental trauma, and speech difficulty. It is also crucial to note that orthodontics treatment is most effective when they are availed at an early age. However, it is never too late to resolve a health condition.